This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The pieces which make up the largest part of the wall frame are the "filling-in" or "intermediate" studs. These, as the name implies, are used merely to fill up the frame made by the other heavier pieces, and afford a nailing surface for the boarding, which covers the frame on the outside, and the lathing, which covers it on the inside. The filling-in studs are usually placed 16 inches apart, measured from the center of one stud to the center of the next. In especially good work they are sometimes placed only 12 inches apart on centers, but this is unusual. In no case should they be placed more than 16 inches apart, even in the lightest work. The studs are made the full width of the wall, usually 4 inches, but sometimes in large buildings (such as churches) 5 or even 6 inches and their thickness is almost always 2 inches, 2X4 inches being the more usual dimensions. The lengths of the intermediate studs are made to fit the rest of the frame.
Fig. 117. Placing of Block Stiffoners in Construction Shown in Fig. 116.
In the braced frame, there must necessarily be a great deal of cutting of the intermediate studding, because all the large pieces are made the full width of the wall and the intermediate studding must be cut to fit between them. In the balloon frame, however, the intermediate studding in all cases extends clear up from the sill to the plate, and no cutting is necessary except the notching to receive the other parts of the frame. See Fig. 91.
In a balloon frame it often happens that the studs are not long enough to reach from the sill to the plate and they must be pieced out with short pieces which are spliced onto the long stud. This splicing is called "fishing," and it is accomplished by nailing a short thin strip of wood AA on each side of the stud, as shown in Fig. 54, in order to join the two pieces firmly together. The strips should be well nailed to each piece in order to give the required strength.
All door and window studs should have a tenon cut at the foot of the piece to fit a mortise cut in the sill. Intermediate studs are merely spiked to the sill without being framed into it. The tenons are cut in two different ways, as shown in Figs. 118 and 119. They are always made the full thickness of the piece, and by the first method they are placed in the middle of the piece, as shown. The width of the tenon is about 1 1/2 inches, leaving 1 1/2 inches on the outside and 1 inch on the inside of the stud. Another way is to make the tenon on the inside of the stud, as shown in Fig. 119, the tenon being 1 1/2 inches wide as before. There is no choice between these methods, both being good.
Fig. 118. Intermediate Stud with Tenon.
Fig. 119. Intermediate Stud with Tenon.