28. Gable Details. The gable is the end of the roof at that end of the building which is parallel to the roof trusses. Since this extends beyond the plane of the side of the building, some method must be employed in connecting the outer edge with the wall of the building, in order to keep out the rain and wind. Figs. 127 and 128 give several details which are efficient and at the same time economical.

29. Cornice Details. The cornice is that edge of the roof which is perpendicular to the planes of the roof trusses. In addition to being necessarily so constructed as to keep out the wind and the elements, it must have in many cases some form of gutter connected to it, which takes the water off the roof. This gutter should be connected at intervals of every three bays - or, in case this exceeds 50 feet, every two bays - with a pipe or conductor to carry the water to the ground Gutters, as a general thing, are semicircular or nearly so; and for ordinary spans they should not be less than 6 inches wide. Conductors should not be less than 5 inches in diameter. It is not to be supposed that the water entirely fills either the conductors or the gutters. The sizes are made so as to allow for any obstruction such as dirt or ice. Gutters should preferably have a pitch of one inch in every 10 feet. Figs. 129 to 131 give details of cornices with various forms of gutters attached.

Fig. 129. Cornice Details for Steel Roof. See also Figs. 130 and 131.

Fig. 129. Cornice Details for Steel Roof. See also Figs. 130 and 131.

Fig. 130. Cornice Details for Steel Roof. See also Figs. 129 and 131.

Fig. 130. Cornice Details for Steel Roof. See also Figs. 129 and 131.

Fig. 134. Detail of Cinder Floor.

Fig. 134. Detail of Cinder Floor.

Fig. 131. Cornice Detail9 for Steel Roof. See also Figs. 129 and 130.

Fig. 131. Cornice Detail9 for Steel Roof. See also Figs. 129 and 130.

Fig. 132. Ridge Cap.

Fig. 132. Ridge Cap.

The ridge, or peak of the roof, is usually covered with a plain sheet of metal, in which case it is called the ridge cap; or with a metallic roll with flared sides, in which case it is called a ridge roll.

Figs. 132 and 133 show cross-sections of a ridge cap and a ridge roll.

30. Floors. The floor of the shop depends very largely upon the purpose for which the building is intended. It may consist of earth, cinders, boards, concrete, or sheet steel. In cases where men are required to work standing, cinders or boards give the best results. Earth floors will wear into holes in places where the men stand, and concrete or steel makes them foot-weary on account of its inelasticity. Where heavy machinery is installed, and men are seldom present except for a short time at certain periods, concrete makes an ideal floor. Figs. 134, 135, and 136 show details of various kinds of floors. Fig. 137 gives a detail of the floor in the Steam Engineering Laboratory of the University of Illinois. This consists of channels imbedded in concrete. These channels, which are placed in pairs a small distance apart, run both lengthwise and crosswise of the shop. The advantage of this form of construction is that machinery can be placed anywhere on the shop floor and quickly bolted into place by means of T-bolts, a detail of which is shown in the figure.

Fig. 135. Detail of Asphalt or Coal Tar Concrete Floor.

Fig. 135. Detail of Asphalt or Coal-Tar Concrete Floor.

Fig. 136. Detail of Concrete Floor.

Fig. 136. Detail of Concrete Floor.

Lonqitudinal Section

Lonqitudinal Section.

Mill Building Part 7 0300451Fig. 137. Detail of Floor of Steam Laboratory of the University of Illilais.

Fig. 137. Detail of Floor of Steam Laboratory of the University of Illilais.

SMELTER BUILDING FOR THE UNITED STATES MINING COMPANY, BINGHAM JUNCTION, UTAH

SMELTER BUILDING FOR THE UNITED STATES MINING COMPANY, BINGHAM JUNCTION, UTAH.

Structure, 100 ft. by 378 ft.; weight of steel work, 870,000 lbs.

Courtesy of American Bridge Comnany.

DESIGNS FOR DOORKNOCKERS

DESIGNS FOR DOORKNOCKERS.

R. Binet, Architect, Paris, France. Reproduced from "Esquisses Decoratives de Binet, Architecte"