This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
18. Definitions and Description. A mill building consists of a roof supported either on steel columns, on steel columns built in also connected at certain distances throughout their height by horizontal members called girts. The building may or may not have a monitor ventilator on top. See Fig. 80 for general form of mill buildings, together with the names of the various parts.
*Pencoyd Handbook, 1898, p. 293.†Couipiled from Ketehum's "Steel Mill Buildings." masonry walls, or on masonry walls alone. The roof may consist of any of the forms of roof trusses that have previously been mentioned ; and the roof covering, which may rest on purlins, or on rafters and purlins, may consist of any of the roof coverings mentioned in Article 5. In case the roof is supported on steel columns, the columns are connected at their tops by a strut called the eave-strut; and they are
Fig. 80. Physical Analysis of a Mill Building.
The eave-struts and the girts are used as a framework on which to place the covering for the walls of the building. This covering may be of wood, of wire lath and plaster, or of corrugated steel. The eave-strut may also act as the end purlin.
Since the majority of mill buildings have their roofs and sides covered with corrugated steel, the remainder of this text will be devoted to mill buildings with this kind of covering.
19. Types of Buildings. Mill buildings may be classified according to their width and the number of bays which they have. A building may consist of one center bay (see Fig. 81). In this case the span may vary from 30 to 100 feet. Usually side windows give sufficient light, no skylights being required in the roofs or monitor if the span is less than 80 feet.
Fig. 85. Cross-Sections of Mill Buildings.
The building may consist of one center bay and one or two side bays, as shown in Figs. 82 and 83. The truss of the center bay is usually of the Fink type, and in most cases is supplied with skylights and lights in the monitor. The side trusses for the most part consist of that type in which the chords are nearly parallel. The center bay is generally not more than 60 feet in span. This is due to the fact that the crane girder would be unnecessarily heavy if a longer span were used. The side spans are usually from 30 to 40 feet.
In case it is desirable to have the building wider than 150 feet, and still have it lighted by natural light, the common saw-tooth roof (Fig. 84) or Ketchum's modified saw-tooth (Fig. 85) is used. In such cases the bays are seldom greater than 40 feet. Cranes may be placed in one or all of the bays. One great advantage of this type of roof is that it gives a good light uniformly throughout the entire shop; and at any time it is desired to widen the shop, additional bays may be added. The shop may also be lengthened by adding additional trusses at the end. Of course, shops of the first two types mentioned may be widened by addition of extra bays; but the connection to the old work will be unsatisfactory, and skylights will have to be placed in the roofs both of the old bays and of the new ones. For views showing the interior of shops, see pages 77 to 84.
20. General Requirements. The general requirements of a mill building depend in detail on the purpose for which it is intended. The requirements which are common to all classes of buildings are ventilation, good light, and transportation facilities both inside and outside the shop. The question of light and ventilation is discussed on pp. 42 and 66. In regard to transportation facilities, it may be said that either the building should be placed so close to a railway track that the material may be unloaded by means of a crane and hauled into the shop, or the track must run into the shop so that the material may be unloaded and placed on the stock floor by means of a crane in the center bay and wall jib-cranes (see Fig. 109, p. 83) or by means of hand trucks.
21. Layout. The purpose for which the building is intended, and its relative location in regard to transportation facilities, will determine its layout. For manufacturing purposes, it should be so laid out that the materials will always pass forward in going from the raw material to the finished product. In general it may be said that the engines, machines (lathes, milling machines, drill presses, shears, punches, etc.), and stock room, should be in the side bays; and the laving out, erection, and shipping floors should be placed in the center bay in the order mentioned. Fig. 86 gives a layout of a concern manufacturing frogs and switches.
22. Framing. The framing of a mill building consists of the roof framing, which has been discussed in the preceding articles; the columns, which will be discussed in the next article; and the girts and eave-struts. Eave-struts are a detail of cornice design. Various forms and methods of connections are shown in Article 29, p. 95, and the student is referred to this article.
Girts may be made of wood, angles, or channels. They should be designed for a pressure of from 20 to 30 pounds to the square foot on the side of the building. The spacing of the purlins depends upon the thickness of the corrugated steel used. On account of the fact that corrugated steel can be procured in lengths up to 10 feet and for spans of 5 feet, the stress per square inch due to 30 pounds per square foot is about 25 000 pounds. In No. 24 gauge corrugated steel, the spacing of the girts is limited to 5 feet or less.