This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 59. Door-Holder Actuated by Spring Operated by Foot.
Fig. 60. Another Type of Door-Holder.
Neither kick plates nor push plates should be used except where there is a necessity therefor; they are not properly subjects for ornamental treatment; and they add materially to the weight of the door, which in its lightest form is a severe strain on the butts. The plain face of the metal shows any indentations, and it is difficult to keep bright. Careless cleaners, moreover, are apt to rub off the finish of the wood, so that the plates become surrounded by an unsightly fringe of unfin-ished wood.
Sliding=Door Sheaves. In many places it is desirable to have the door slide back into pockets in the partitions. There are on the market many devices for trucks, generally good and inexpensive; but their installation and the framing incident thereto are matters of delicate workmanship, and if future trouble is to be avoided, it is well to see that appliances of this character are put in only by mechanics of known skill. After the doors are in and the partitions plastered, is a bad time to do the work over.
Fig. 63. Transom Fixtures for Horizontal Pivoting.
Transom Hardware. Transoms are generally hung from the top or bottom with fast-pin butts; or with pivots in the center of the top and bottom rail allowing them to swing at right angles with the transom bar, which is called pivoting vertically (Fig. 61). or with pivots in the center of each side to allow the sash to swing to a horizontal position, which is called pivoting horizontally (Fig. 62).
It is not necessary to refer to the butts here, except to say that it will generally be more satisfactory to pivot the transoms than to hinge them, for, when hinged, it is necessary for the transom lifter to carry the full weight of the sash, which it very often fails to do satisfactorily; whereas, when pivoted, one side balances the other so that the lifter has nothing to do but overcome the friction of movement. These pivots are simple and easily applied.
There are on the market patented friction pivots of various types, which, while allowing the ordinary pivot action, hold the sash in any required position, thus doing away with the lifter. The transom, either pushed or pulled by an ordinary window pole-hook to the position desired, remains as left. To lock it in place, a large-size, heavy spring-ring catch is put in the top rail, which can be opened with the hook on the pole.
The transom lifter (Fig. 63) is an item in which little improvement has been made in the last generation. Its operation is generally unsatisfactory, and its use should be avoided if possible; but when it is necessary to use a lifter, it is advisable to get the heaviest rods, to prevent the unavoidable spring.
Cellar=Window Hardware. In this connection the hinging and locking of small cellar windows, above grade, may be considered. The sash are usually light; and it is not best to swing any portion out, as they are so near the ground that the portion turned out would be liable to damage. Also, it is often necessary to pass things through the window into the cellar, and this requires the full opening. The sash are particularly liable to shrinkage and swelling - more often the latter - which cause them to stick in the frame. Moreover, the cellar window is a favorite point for the burglar's entrance. It is therefore usually necessary to hinge cellar windows with fast-pin butts at the top, to swing inward and up against the joists, and to have a strong handle for pulling them out of the frame when they stick, and a simple lock. Fig. 64 shows a simple but efficient device for fastening a cellar window. The screws in the part on the frame should be the longest obtainable; and the rivet or bolt holding the swinging part to the plate should be strongly secured, so that both points will resist any ordinary pressure from the outside. If a burglar brings his "jimmy," it is not likely that any appliance that can be used on the inside will resist its pry. For holding the window open, a strong wire hook and eye will be sufficient.
Fig. 63. Transom Lifter.
Wardrobe Hooks. In the selection and arrangement of wardrobe hooks, careful study will greatly increase the capacity of the usual hanging space. It is a mistake to select one type of hooks, and use that throughout; and also to consider that hanging space is confined to the walls. For ordinary items, common strong wire hooks (Fig. 65) can be used, set closely together; and if there is depth to the closet flies can be hinged so as almost to double the hanging capacity. In Fig. 66, A A represent the flies hinged on the wall. Arrangements of this kind, however, are not suitable for the hanging of garments which are required to retain certain shapes. For these articles, long horizontal hooks or pins (Fig. 67) should be provided; on these, certain garments can be hung close to the wall; while such items as coats can be placed on two, one in each arm, so that they will retain their shape and hang clear of the pieces against the wall.
Fig. 64. Cellar-Window Fastener.
Fig. 65. Common Type of Wardrobe Hook Made from. Wire.
In the more expensive materials, many special types of hooks are made for special purposes. They generally have a lower, minor hook, while the upper arm extends outward and upward for hanging hats; in other cases the upper arm extends out nearly horizontally, and then dips to support a garment clear of that below. A very useful article of furniture is a tree or standard (for use in bedrooms), to which are secured a large variety of hooks adapted to the various items of the wardrobe for daily use.