In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of the various methods and principles. Accompanying these are examples for practice which will aid the reader in fixing the principles in mind.

In the following pages are given a large number of test questions and problems which afford a valuable means of testing the reader's knowledge of the subjects treated. They will be found excellent practice for those preparing for College, Civil Service, or Engineer's License. In some cases numerical answers are given as a further aid in this work.

On The Subject Of Carpentry. Part I

1. Classify trees as to the manner of growth and explain how the structure affects their value as building material.

2. Give the characteristics of the four parts of the section of a conifer, shown in Fig. 1.

3. What effect do the medullary rays have on the lumber of such trees as the maple and oak?

4. What are the common defects of timber?

5. How can warping be prevented?

6. Explain the term "quarter sawed."

7. Mention the best framing lumber. What qualities recommend the kind mentioned?

8. White pine, red cypress, and poplar are usually considered the best lumbers to use in exposed positions. Why?

9. What qualities make yellow or hard pine so popular?

10. Classify lumber as hard wood and soft wood. State the more common uses of each kind.

11. Name the common tools used in woodworking.

12. How does the action of the rip saw differ from that of the cross-cut saw?

13. Explain the uses of each kind of plane.

14. What operations constitute "laying out"?

15. How is the 3 - 4 - 5 rule used?

16. Give directions for constructing and setting batter-boards.

17. From the information given in the text, discuss the availability of the different kinds of wood to be used for shingles.

18. What is bird's-eye maple?

19. Name the three parts of a steel square.

20. What precaution should be taken in regard to ground water?

21. Distinguish between the two growths of timber known as endogenous and exogenous.

22. Explain how the exogenous trees increase in height and circumference.

23. Discuss the comparative value of the heartwood and sap-wood.

24. Draw a sketch showing the general structure of some common kind of wood.

25. What is the usual cause of dry rot and how may this be overcome?

On The Subject Of Carpentry. Part II

1. Name the principal parts of a frame.

2. Illustrate and describe a splice joint; a square butt joint; an oblique butt joint.

3. Which of the three is the strongest?

4. Illustrate three different methods of joining joists to girders.

5. Illustrate and describe two joints particularly adapted for tension.

6. Upon what does the strength of the joint shown in Fig. 61 depend?

7. What is a spline; and how is it used?

8. Under what circumstances would the dovetail key illustrated in Fig. 84 be used? When would you use the method illustrated in Fig. 85?

9. Distinguish between a balloon and a braced frame.

10. Give the special advantages of the balloon frame and state why, in your opinion, it has become so popular.

11. What method would you use to make a sill set firmly on a foundation?

12. What method would you use to prevent the moisture in foundation from causing dry rot?

13. Illustrate as many different kinds of corner posts as you are familiar with.

14. What advantages has the ledger board over a girt? Which is preferable in balloon framing?

15. Describe and illustrate a good method of forming the corners of inside rooms so that there will be a nailing for the lath.

1G. What precaution should be taken in preparing for plaster around the chimney? Illustrate the method which you think best.

17. Upon what principle does the effect of diagonal bridging depend?

18. Discuss the relative value of the use of joist hangers and the use of gains in supporting girders and joists. Illustrate the method which you think best.

19. Describe a good method of construction for a floor opening in front of a fireplace.

20. Why should the top of each joist be cut back where it enters a masonry wall?

21. Why are joists crowned?

22. Does the straightness of the joist have anything to do with the manner in which it should be crowned?

23. What method would you use in supporting corners where it is impossible to use a post or wall under them? Illustrate.

24. Where is the shrinkage of the lumber used in a building liable to cause trouble? How can this be avoided?

25. What special construction is desirable in the case of a partition where sliding doors are used?

On The Subject Of Carpentry. Part III

1. Illustrate the different styles of roofs. Name each style.

2. Which style of roof is the most common for cottages?

3. What are the component parts of a roof?

4. Discuss the ordinary size of rafters. What should be the limit of length for each size?

5. Name the different kinds of rafters and draw a figure of each kind.

6. What determines the pitch of the roof; and what does one-quarter pitch mean?

7. Draw a plan of a six-room cottage with a single L and show how you would put the roof on the building.

8. Illustrate how you would obtain the length of the valley rafters in this case.

9. Draw a sketch of each of the different kinds of rafters you would use and illustrate roughly how you would lay the square on the rafters to obtain the bevels.

10. What is a double gable roof?

11. How are the proportions for a gambrel roof obtained?

12. Sketch the roof framing for a dormer window.

13. Why is it rarely necessary to back the rafters used in residences and cottages?

14. Draw an illustration of a trussed partition, stating which timbers are used in tension and which are used in compression.

15. What is a bowled floor; and where are these floors usually used?

16. How far may a balcony safely extend without bracing?

17. Illustrate a good method of framing the overhanging portion of a gallery. Give the sizes of timber you would use.

18. Define a king-post truss.

19. Illustrate and show which members are in tension.

20. Illustrate the queen-post truss and show the tension members.

21. Name the different kinds of trusses usually used.

22. In building a cupola or a tower, what special stresses must be taken into consideration?

23. Draw the principal members of a dome construction.

24. What members are in tension?

25. Illustrate the best method of cradling for a groined ceiling.

On The Subject Of Carpentry. Part IV

1. Mention the various kinds of lumber used in your neighborhood for interior finishing. For exterior finishing.

2. What is the advantage of using sheathing and building paper?

3. Illustrate the method which you consider best for the construction of a water table for a $3,000 residence.

4. Illustrate and discuss the relative advantages of wood and metal gutters.

5. Illustrate a section through a boxed cornice.

6. What is the special advantage of the concealed gutter? Where is this gutter usually used?

7. Draw a sketch showing the framing for a skylight.

8. Make a list of the different parts of a window frame.

9. Draw a cross section of the one side of the window frame, putting on dimensions which are common for frame buildings in your vicinity.

10. Name and distinguish between the different kinds of windows.

11. What is a transom? A transom window?

12. Illustrate the horizontal section through the side jamb of an interior door frame; of an exterior door frame. Name the parts.

13. Name the parts of a three-piece base. Give the dimensions usually used.

14. Sketch a common form of wainscoting.

15. Draw a careful sketch of a picture molding; a plate rail; a window sill; a mullion; a muntin.

16. Compare the relative values of shingles and clapboards as wall covering.

17. What is siding? When and how is it used?

18. What is the purpose of a belt course? Illustrate a method of construction.

19. Sketch the details used with a false rafter and show how the gutter is constructed.

20. Illustrate two methods of finishing the ridge.

21. Name the parts used in the cornice of the gable and give approximate sizes for these parts.

22. What is a verge board?

23. Illustrate outside architrave. When is this construction used?

24. Show the construction used where siding or shingles are covered by the frieze at a gable end and on a side wall.

25. What means are employed to catch the water which may blow between the joints in a casement window?