This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
This saw is designed for cutting along the direction of the grain of the wood, and from this comes its name, which suggests very clearly its purpose. Fig. 18 shows one of these saws, but the shape of the blade varies a great deal with different makers, and some people prefer one shape while others prefer another.
The distinguishing feature is the shape and arrangement of the teeth, which are shown in detail in Fig. 19. There are always a certain number of teeth to the inch length of the saw.
Fig. 16. Steel Square.
Fig. 17. Steel Square.
In this kind of a saw, the number is usually four or five, and it will be noticed that one side of the tooth is vertical while the other slopes. The vertical side of the tooth is always toward the front or point of the saw, while the sloping side is always toward the handle. The amount of slope to be given to the teeth of a saw is a matter of opinion and can be regulated when the saw is sharpened, or "filed," but the slope should always be a flat one in this kind of a saw, that is, it should make an angle of less than forty-five degrees with the horizontal, or with the line of the back of the saw.
Fig. 18. Side View of Rip Saw.
It is held by some that the teeth of a rip saw should be straight on the front edge, that is, that they should have the edge at right angles with the side of the blade, while others maintain that the edge of the tooth should be cut across obliquely, so as to be at an angle of about eighty-five degrees with the side of the blade. A saw may be filed either way, according to the opinion of the owner, the determining factor being usually the kind of wood to be cut and whether the grain is absolutely straight or more or less crooked. In the latter case the edges of the teeth should certainly have a slight bevel so as to give a cutting edge. The bevel should, however, be on alternate sides of adjacent teeth, that is, one tooth should be beveled toward the right and the next toward the left and so on. This arrangement helps to keep the saw straight while cutting, and prevents it from being forced over to one side or the other. Fig. 20 shows a view of the cutting edge of a rip saw, showing the way in which the teeth should be filed.
Fig. 19. Slope of Teeth in Rip Saw.
Fig. 20. Blade of Rip Saw Edge-On.