All soil pipe and fittings are to be of cast iron of the grade known to the trade as "Extra Heavy" - that is, the grade in which a 5-foot length of 4-inch pipe weighs not less than 65 pounds, coated outside and inside with asphalt paint. The main line extending from the running trap now in manhole to a point just above the highest fixture, is to be 4-inch; all branches to fixtures are to be of the smallest diameter allowed by the city ordinances, and are to be brought to points as near the fixtures as possible.

Above the highest fixture, a 4-inch wrought-iron fitting is to be calked into the cast-iron hub of soil pipe, and continue with 4-inch wrought-iron screw-jointed pipe into the flue for the kitchen range, and thence to top of chimney; but before the wrought pipe enters the flue, a right angle is to be formed in the screw-joint fittings, so that, in case of unequal settlement of any part, the screw-joint in the angle will take up the movement.

Back air or "vent" pipes are to be installed only as required to comply with the city ordinances.

All soil and waste pipes are to be calked with pig lead.

As the details show the location of pipes and fittings required on the plumbing drawings, they are not described here.

After all roughing-in of soil and waste pipe is complete, all outlets below the top are to be stopped, and the entire system is to be filled with water, which is to stand in the pipe without settlement for 10 hours.

All connections from bowls and sinks to traps and waste pipes are to be of 1-inch "Heavy" lead; from washtrays and bathtubs, the wastes are to be 1 1/2 inch "Heavy" lead; and the joints are to be formed as indicated above for water runs.

The water-closets are to be set on and bolted to brass flanges above the floor, from which a 4-inch lead bend of 8-pound weight is to connect with a brass ferrule calked in the soil pipe.

The flush-pipe connection from tank to water-closet is to be nickel-plated brass 1 1/4-inch pipe.

In carrying out the entire plumbing system, all pipes are to be run exposed, except when soil pipe is continued in flue. There is to be no cutting of timbers; and wherever pipes pass through partitions or floors, collars of the same material as the pipe are to be placed, except that where lead pipes are used, the collars are to be of nickel-plated brass.

The requirements of the city ordinances are to be observed; while where this specification requires work or material in addition to that allowed by the ordinance, this requirement is not to be construed as relieving the Contractor from furnishing all that is herein specified; and when the work is completed, it must be in such condition that every fixture and pipe shall perform the functions pertaining thereto in a perfect manner. And, further, it shall be an obligation on the part of the Contractor to make the smoke and peppermint test of the entire system, when required, not less than 3 months after the occupancy of the premises; and previous to such tests, there is to be no tightening of unions or other screw-joints. Any joints which then are not found to be perfectly tight, are to be opened, and such washers or other appliances placed as in the opinion of the Architect will make a permanent seal.

Note To Student

No. 4. - See Note No. 1 on page 33, relative to examination of actual masonry- work. At this point the student is to follow the directions in No. 1, but applying them to plumbing work and materials, and to prepare a 400-word specification of a portion of the work and materials, as explained