Fig. 60. Methods of Building Up Strings.

In Fig. 62 is shown a wreath-piece or curved portion of the outside string rising around the cylinder at the half-space. This is formed by reducing a short piece of string to a veneer between the springings; bending it upon a cylinder made to fit the plan; then, when it is secured in position, filling up the back of the veneer with staves glued across it; and, finally, gluing a piece of canvas over the whole. The appearance of the wreath-piece after it has been built up and removed from the cylinder is indicated in Fig. 63. The canvas back has been omitted to show the staving; and the counter-wedge key used for connecting the wreath-piece with the string is shown. The wreath-piece is, at this stage, ready for marking the outlines of the steps.

Fig. 62 also shows the drum or shape around which strings may be bent, whether the strings are formed of veneers, staved, or kerfed. Another drum or shape is shown in Fig. 64. In this, a portion of a cylinder is formed in the manner clearly indicated; and the string, being set out on a veneer board sufficiently thin to bend easily, is laid down round the curve, such a number of pieces of like thickness being then added as will make the required thickness of the string. In working this method, glue is introduced between the veneers, which are then quickly strained down to the curved piece with hand screws. A string of almost any length can be formed in this way, by gluing a few feet at a time, and when that dries, removing the cylindrical curve and gluing down more, until the whole is completed. Several other methods will suggest themselves to the workman, of building up good, solid, circular strings.

Fig. 61. Building Up a Curved Panel or Quick Sweep.

Fig. 61. Building Up a Curved Panel or Quick Sweep.

Fig. 63. Wreath Piece Bent around Cylinder.

Fig. 63. Wreath-Piece Bent around Cylinder.

Fig. 63. Completed Wreath Piece Removed from Cylinder.

Fig. 63. Completed Wreath-Piece Removed from Cylinder.

Fig. 64. Another Drum or Shape for Building Curved Strings.

Fig. 64. Another Drum or Shape for Building Curved Strings.

One method of laying out the treads and risers around a cylinder or drum, is shown in Fig. 65. The line D shows the curve of the rail. The lines showing treads and risers may be marked off on the cylinder, or they may be marked off after the veneer is bent around the drum or cylinder.

There are various methods of making inside cylinders or wells, and of fastening same to strings. One method is shown in Fig. 66. This gives a strong joint when properly made. It will be noticed that the cylinder is notched out on the back; the two blocks shown at the back of the offsets are wedges driven in to secure the cylinder in place, and to drive it up tight to the strings. Fig. 67 shows an 8-inch well-hole with cylinder complete; also the method of trimming and finishing same. The cylinder, too, is shown in such a manner that its construction will be readily understood.

Stairs having a cylindrical or circular opening always require a weight support underneath them. This support, which is generally made of rough lumber, is called the carriage, because it is supposed to carry any reasonable load that may be placed upon the stairway. Fig. 68 shows the under side of a half-space stair having a carriage beneath it. The timbers marked S are of rough stuff, and may be 2-inch by 6-inch or of greater dimensions. If they are cut to fit the risers and treads, they will require to be at least 2-inch by 8-inch.

In preparing the rough carriage for the winders, it will be best to let the back edge of the tread project beyond the back of the riser so that it forms a ledge as shown under C in Fig. 69. Then fix the cross-carriage pieces under the winders, with the back edge about flush with the backs of risers, securing one end to the well with screws, and the other to the wall string or the wall. Now cut short pieces, marked O O (Fig. 68), and fix them tightly in between the cross-carriage and the back of the riser as at B B in the section, Fig. 69. These carriages should be of 3-inch by 2-inch material. Now get a piece of wood, 1-inch by 3-inch, and cut pieces C C to fit tightly between the top back edge of the winders (or the ledge) and the pieces marked B B in section. This method makes a very sound and strong job of the winders; and if the stuff is roughly planed, and blocks are glued on each side of the short cross-pieces 0 0 0, it is next to impossible for the winders ever to spring or squeak. When the weight is carried in this manner, the plasterer will have very little trouble in lathing so that a graceful soffit will be made under the stairs.

Fig. 65. Laying Out Treads and Risers around a Drum.

Fig. 65. Laying Out Treads and Risers around a Drum.

Fig. 66. One Method of Making an Inside Well.

Fig. 66. One Method of Making an Inside Well.

Fig. 67. Construction and Trimming of 8 Inch Well Hole.

Fig. 67. Construction and Trimming of 8-Inch Well-Hole.

The manner of placing the main stringers of the carriage S S, is shown at A, Fig. 69. Fig. 68 shows a complete half-space stair; one-half of this, finished as shown, will answer well for a quarter-space stair.

Another method of forming a carriage for a stair is shown in Fig. 70. This is a peculiar but very handsome stair, inasmuch as the first and the last four steps are parallel, but the remainder balance or dance. The treads are numbered in this illustration; and the plan of the handrail is shown extending from the scroll at the bottom of the stairs to the landing on the second story. The trimmer T at the top of the stairs is also shown; and the rough strings or carriages, R S, R S, R S, are represented by dotted lines.

This plan represents a stair with a curtail step, and a scroll handrail resting over the curve of the curtail step. This type of stair is not now much in vogue in this country, though it is adopted occasionally in some of the larger cities. The use of heavy newel posts instead of curtail steps, is the prevailing style at present.

In laying out geometrical stairs, the steps are arranged on principles already described. The well-hole in the center is first laid down and the steps arranged around it, In circular stairs with an open well-hole, the handrail being on the inner side, the width of tread for the steps should be set off at about 18 inches from the handrail, this giving an approximately uniform rate of progress for anyone ascending or descending the stairway. In stairs with the rail on the outside, as sometimes occurs, it will be sufficient if the treads have the proper width at the middle point of their length.

Where a flight of stairs will likely be subject to great stress and wear, the carriages should be made much heavier than indicated in the foregoing figures; and there may be cases when it will be necessary to use iron bolts in the sides of the rough strings in order to give them greater strength. This necessity, however, will arise only in the case of stairs built in public buildings, churches, halls, factories, warehouses, or other buildings of a similar kind. Sometimes, even in house stairs, it may be wise to strengthen the treads and risers by spiking pieces of board to the rough string, ends up, fitting them snugly against the under side of the tread and the back of the riser. The method of doing this is shown in Fig. 71, in which the letter 0 shows the pieces nailed to the string.

Fig. 68. Under Side of Half Space Stair, with Carriages and Cross Carriages.

Fig. 68. Under Side of Half-Space Stair, with Carriages and Cross-Carriages.