Sufficient examples of stairs having angles of greater or less degree at the turn or change of direction, to

FIRST Story Plan FIRST-STORY PLAN OF COUNTRY HOUSE AT BETHLEHEM, N. H.

The Living Room Affords a View into the Littleton Valley, to the Northwest. The View from the Dining Room is toward Mount Washington,

The South Porch Looks Out On Mount Lafayette

Living Room Finished in Oak, Natural; Dining Room, Stair Hall, and enable the student to build any stair of this class, have now been given. There are, however, other types of stairs in common use, whose turns are curved, and in which newels are employed only at the foot, and sometimes at the finish of the flight. These curved turns may be any part of a circle, according to the requirements of the case, but turns of a quarter-circle or half-circle are the more common. The string forming the curve is called a cylinder, or part of a cylinder, as the case may be. The radius of this circle or cylinder may be any length, according to the space assigned for the stair. The opening around which the stair winds is called the well-hole.

Writing Room, in Cypress; Bedrooms in White Pine; Servants' Rooms in Georgia Pine. House Built in 1904-05. Cost, \$11,000. For Exterior, See Page 288.

SECOND STORY PLAN.

SECOND-STORY PLAN OF COUNTRY HOUSE AT BETHLEHEM, N. H. First-Story Plan Shown on Opposite Page.

Fig. 56 shows a portion of a stairway having a well-hole with a 7-inch radius. This stair is rather peculiar, as it shows a quarter-space landing, and a quarter-space having three winders. The reason for this is the fact that the landing is on a level with the floor of another room, into which a door opens from the landing. This is a problem very often met with in practical work, where the main stair is often made to do the work of two flights because of one floor being so much lower than another.

A curved stair, sometimes called a geometrical stair, is shown in Fig. 57, containing seven winders in the cylinder or well-hole, the first and last aligning with the diameter.

In Fig. 58 is shown another example of this kind of stair, containing nine winders in the well-hole, with a circular wall-string. It is not often that stairs are built in this fashion, as most stairs having a circular well-hole finish against the wall in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 57.

Sometimes, however, the workman will be confronted with a plan such as shown in Fig. 58; and he should know how to lay out the wall-string. In the elevation, Fig. 58, the string is shown to be straight, similar to the string of a common straight flight. This results from having an equal width in the winders along the wall-string, and, as we have of necessity an equal width in the risers, the development of the string is merely a straight piece of board, as in an ordinary straight flight. In laying out the string, all we have to do is to make a common pitch-board, and, with it as a templet, mark the lines of the treads and risers on a straight piece of board, as shown at 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

Fig. 56. Stair Serving for Two Flights, with Mid-Floor Landing.

If you can manage to bend the string without kerfing (grooving), it will be all the better; if not, the kerfs (grooves) must be parallel to the rise. You can set out with a straight edge, full size, on a rough platform, just as shown in the diagram; and when the string is bent and set in place, the risers and winders will have their correct positions.

To bend these strings or otherwise prepare them for fastening against the wall, perhaps the easiest way is to saw the string with a fine saw, across the face, making parallel grooves. This method of bending is called kerfing, above referred to. The kerfs or grooves must be cut parallel to the lines of the risers, so as to be vertical when the string is in place. This method, however - handy though it may be - is not a good one, inasmuch as the saw groove will show more or less in the finished work.

Another method is to build up or stave the string. There are several ways of doing this. In one, comparatively narrow pieces are cut to the required curve or to portions of it, and are fastened together, edge to edge, with glue and screws, until the necessary width is obtained (see Fig. 59). The heading joints may be either butted or beveled, the latter being stronger, and should be cross-tongued.

Fig. 57. Geometrical Stair with Seven Winders.

Fig. 58. Plan of Circular Stair and Layout of Wall String for Same.

Fig. 60 shows a method that may be followed when a wide string is required, or a piece curved in the direction of its width is needed for any purpose. The pieces are stepped over each other to suit the desired curve; and though shown square-edged in the figure, they are usually cut beveled, as then, by reversing them, two may be cut out of a batten.

Panels and quick sweeps for similar purposes are obtained in the manner shown in Fig. 61, by joining up narrow boards edge to edge at a suitable bevel to give the desired curve. The internal curve is frequently worked approximately, before gluing up. The numerous joints incidental to these methods limit their uses to painted or unimportant work.

Fig. 59.