Before proceeding to describe and illustrate neweled stairs, it will be proper to say something about the well-hole, or the opening through the floors, through which the traveler on the stairs ascends or descends from one floor to another.

Fig. 29. Showing How a Cut or Open String is Finished at Foot of Stair.

Fig. 29. Showing How a Cut or Open String is Finished at Foot of Stair.

Fig. 31 shows a well-hole, and the manner of trimming it. In this instance the stairs are placed against the wall; but this is not necessary in all cases, as the well-hole may be placed in any part of the building.

The arrangement of the trimming varies according as the joists are at right angles to, or are parallel to, the wall against which the. stairs are built. In the former case (Fig. 31, A) the joists are cut short and tusk-tenoned into the heavy trimmer T T, as shown in the cut. This trimmer is again tusk-tenoned into two heavy joists T J and T J, which form the ends of the well-hole. These heavy joists are called trimming joists; and, as they have to carry a much heavier load than other joists on the same floor, they are made much heavier. Sometimes two or three joists are placed together, side by side, being bolted or spiked together to give them the desired unity and strength. In constructions requiring great strength, the tail and header joists of a well-hole are suspended on iron brackets.

If the opening runs parallel with the joists (Fig. 31, B), the timber forming the side of the well-hole should be left a little heavier than the other joists, as it will have to carry short trimmers (T J and T J) and the joists running into them. The method here shown is more particularly adapted to brick buildings, but there is no reason why the same system may not be applied to frame buildings.

Usually in cheap, frame buildings, the trimmers T T are spiked against the ends of the joists, and the ends of the trimmers are supported by being spiked to the trimming joists T J, T J. This is not very workmanlike or very secure, and should not be done, as it is not nearly so strong or durable as the old method of framing the joists and trimmers together.

Fig. 32 shows a stair with three newels and a platform. In this example, the first tread (No. 1) stands forward of the newel post two-thirds of its width. This is not necessary in every case, but it is sometimes done to suit conditions in the hallway. The second newel is placed at the twelfth riser, and supports the upper end of the first cut string and the lower end of the second cut string. The platform (12) is supported by joists which are framed into the wall and are fastened against a trimmer running from the wall to the newel along the line 12. This is the case only when the second newel runs down to the floor.

Fig. 30. Showing How a Cut or Open String is Finished at Top of Stair.

Fig. 30. Showing How a Cut or Open String is Finished at Top of Stair.

Fig. 31. Showing Ways of Trimming Well Hole when Joists Run in Different Directions.

Fig. 31. Showing Ways of Trimming Well-Hole when Joists Run in Different Directions.

If the second newel does not run to the floor, the framework supporting the platform will need to be built on studding. The third newel stands at the top of the stairs, and is fastened to the joists of the second floor, or to the trimmer, somewhat after the manner of fastening shown in Fig. 29. In this example, the stairs have 16 risers

Well Hole 0200445HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, ILL.

HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, ILL.

Herbert Edmund Hewitt, Architect, Peoria, Ill.

Walls of Cement on Metal Lath. Roofs Covered with Shingles Stained Green. All Outside Woodwork Stained Dark Brown. No Paint on Outside except on Sash.

HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, ILL.

HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, ILL.

Herbert Edmund Hewitt, Architect, Peoria, Ill.

Built in 1904. Cost, about $4,500. House was Built for a Summer House, but and 15 treads, the platform or landing (12) making one tread. The figure 16 shows the floor in the second story.

Constructed the Same as if for All Year-Round Use, and Provided with Heating Plant.

This style of stair will require a well-hole in shape about as shown in the plan; and where strength is required, the newel at the top should run from floor to floor, and act as a support to the joists and trimmers on which the second floor is laid.

Perhaps the best way for a beginner to go about building a stairway of this type, will be to lay out the work on the lower floor in the exact place where the stairs are to be erected, making everything full size. There will be no difficulty in doing this; and if the positions of the first riser and the three newel posts are accurately defined, the building of the stairs will be an easy matter. Plumb lines can be raised from the lines on the floor, and the positions of the platform and each riser thus easily determined. Not only is it best to line out on the floor all stairs having more than one newel; but in constructing any kind of stair it will perhaps be safest for a beginner to lay out in exact position on the floor the points over which the treads and risers will stand. By adopting this rule, and seeing that the strings, risers, and treads correspond exactly with the lines on the floor, many cases of annoyance will be avoided. Many expert stair-builders, in fact, adopt this method in their practice, laying out all stairs on the floor, including even the carriage strings, and they cut out all the material from the lines obtained on the floor. By following this method, one can see exactly the requirements in each particular case, and can rectify any error without destroying valuable material.

Fig. 32. Stair with Three Newels and a Platform.

Fig. 32. Stair with Three Newels and a Platform.