This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
As a part of the finishing of the inside of the house will come the adjustment of the sashes and doors. The sashes are held in place by stop beads, which are strips of wood usually one-half an inch in thickness and of varying widths, according to the thickness of the sashes and of the walls. (Fig. 79.) These stop beads should always be secured by screws, as it will sometimes become necessary to remove them to adjust or replace the sashes. Special screws are sold for this purpose, if desired, which have a washer with a horizontal slot, which will allow of the slight adjustment made necessary by the swelling or shrinking of the sashes, by simply loosening the screws. Before applying the stops the sashes must be carefully fitted and balanced, and as they will vary some-what in weight, the matter of a perfect balance will require close attention. The superintendent should see that each sash is so balanced that there will be no great effort needed to raise or lower it, and no danger of its banging by reason of too much or too little weight. He should closely examine the hardware to see that it is as specified and is carefully put on. Sash fasts are often badly set and each one must be tried to see that it works properly and easily. Pulleys should be carefully inspected to see that they are as specified. These will probably have been already set in the window frames when they were received, and unless the contractor has paid especial attention to them they are very likely to be of an inferior order.
Fig. 76. Closed String.
Fig. 77. Rail Bolts.
The difference between a plated bronzed face and a solid bronze metal face is often overlooked, and the bearings will be inferior if not carefully examined. A steel axle pulley may be used for ordinary work, but for better service a turned or milled axle is preferable.
For hanging the sashes, cords, chains and metallic ribbons are used, but for the ordinary sizes of windows a good braided cord is perhaps to be preferred, this depending upon local custom. The size and particular brand of cord should be specified and care taken to see that this is furnished. The leading manufacturers have adopted a copyrighted device of a spot or name which appears at short intervals upon their cord and if noted will prevent any other being substituted. For large sashes with no vertical bar, such as are shown in main rooms of our house, sash lifts should be used. These are metal fixtures applied to the lower or side rims of the sashes to afford a hold for the fingers when raising the sash. In windows as wide as shown, with no vertical bar, the usual habit of starting to raise the sash by lifting up on the middle rail will result in loosening the putty and springing up the rail so that lifts are necessary. These may be of the ordinary hook shape, or may be a metal slot let into the lower sash. (Fig. 80.) Casement or swinging windows and transoms will require special fittings, of which there are a great variety, each designed to supply a special need. .
Fig. 79. Stop Bead.
The main thing to be observed is that the appliances are as simple as possible and that the moving parts are noiseless and well adjusted.