books



previous page: Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol6 | by G. A. T. Middleton
  
page up: Architecture and Construction Books
  
next page: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol4-6

Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol1-3



Volumes 1, 2 and 3 of a general reference work on architecture, carpentry, building, superintendence, contracts, specifications, building law, stair-building, estimating, masonry, reinforced concrete, structural engineering, architectural drawing, sheet metal work, heating, ventilating, etc.

TitleCyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol1-3
AuthorJames C. et al
PublisherAmerican Technical Society
Year1912
Copyright1912, American Technical Society
AmazonCyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building

Prepared by a Staff of Architects, Builders, Engineers, And Experts Of The Highest Professional Standing

Illustrated with over Three Thousand Engravings

Ten Volumes

-Authors and Collaborators
JAMES C. PLANT Superintendent of Computing Division, Office of Supervising Architect, Treasury, Washington, D. C. WALTER LORING WEBB, C. E. Consulting Civil Engineer Author of Railroad Constructi...
-Foreword
THE rapid evolution of constructive methods in recent years, as illustrated in the use of steel and concrete, and the increased size and complexity of buildings, has created the necessity for an autho...
-Table Of Contents
VOLUME I Building Superintendence . . By Edward Nichols^ Page *11 Selection of Site - Cellar Work and Foundations - Cesspools and Drains - Framing Walls, Roofs, and Partitions-Mason Work - Electric W...
-Building Superintendence. Part I. Introduction
The superintendence of building operations is one of the most important, and at times one of the most perplexing duties which an architect is called upon to perform. Plans may have been prepared with ...
-Building Superintendence. Part I. Introduction. Part 2
Confidence In Decisions With this feeling of co-operation thoroughly established between the owner, the architect, and the builder, the architect will be in a position to decide any questions of diff...
-Building Superintendence. Part I. Introduction. Part 3
Fig. 1. Ground Water. Fig. 2. Cellar Drain. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Description Of House The house which we will assume to construct is already familiar to the student in detail, ...
-Cellar Work And Foundations
The next visit finds the excavation of the cellar well under way. The earth has been removed, care being taken to make the outside walls conform to the dimensions of the foundation, and the cellar dug...
-Cesspool And Drains
In connection with the excavation of collar we should take up the matter of a cesspool, provided there is no sewer connection available. Here we will have a choice of methods. In a great many cases wh...
-Dry Wells
As a part of the drainage system we must provide for the distribution of the rain water from the roofs. If our house were connected with a sewer we would simply connect the conductors properly with th...
-Cellar Walls
While it is necessary to consider the matter of drainage at this time, the actual work of building the cesspools and laying the drain pipes is usually taken up at a later period and the whole of our e...
-Cellar Wall
Upon our next visit, we find that the trenches all around the cellar have been filled and a portion of wall laid starting from the corner and running some ten feet in either direction. Our first care ...
-Underpinning
The next visit finds the cellar wall completed up to grade and the excavation filled in to the natural level of the ground. While we have no reason to suspect that our instructions have not been follo...
-Framing
While the walls are being built the carpenters have been at work framing the house and are now ready to lay the sills and put on the first floor beams. The preparation of the sill consists in halving ...
-Exterior Framing
Next in order will come the raising of the exterior vertical frame, and in this relation we will have had a choice of two principles. The first and more common method is called the full frame or br...
-Roofs
As soon as the attic floor is on, the roofs will be raised. In ordinary country houses the roof should be supported where possible by the interior partitions where they extend down to first floor gird...
-Inside Partitions
With the covering in of the building we may turn to the completion of the inside partitions, and these must be carefully followed to see that the studs are straight and plumb. Crooked studding may be ...
-Chimneys
While these matters are being followed out by the carpenter, the mason will have started the chimneys, as the roof cannot be finished until the chimneys are topped out. The bricks which are furnished ...
-Back Plaster
With the topping out of the chimneys the mason, who in suburban work is quite likely to be the plasterer as well, should turn his attention to the back plastering if there is to be any. This is done i...
-Fire Stops
In connection with the back plastering, may be done the fire-stopping of plaster or bricks, the principal points being to build up on the underpinning behind the sill to the underside of floor with br...
-Furring
Beyond the setting of minor partitions which were not needed for the support of floor beams, the principal work of interior framing will be the furring of chimney breasts, and the forming of beams and...
-Furnace Pipes
In the first place, all hot air pipes which are not intended to be exposed must be put in position. If a hot air system has been selected the position of the pipes and registers will have been marked ...
-Plumbing And Gas Pipes
Although it is customary now to run the plumbing pipes outside of the plaster, there will be some ventilation pipes that will need to be provided for at this time. All of the enclosed gas piping must ...
-Electric Wiring in Country Houses
All country houses, unless in very remote situations where there are no chances of an electric current ever being obtained, should be wired for electric lights. The usual method is the knob and tube s...
-Outside Finish
Before the building is ready for the plasterer, the outside and the roof must be made tight. We have seen that the gutters are set and primed or oiled to protect them against water; and above the gutt...
-Paper
The question as to whether paper shall be put under shingles or not, is open to argument. If the shingles are laid without being dipped in paint or with the butts dipped only, the presence of paper wi...
-Slating
With slating or tiling greater care is necessary than with shingles. Neither slates nor tiles will lay as closely to the roof, or to each other, as shingles, and for this reason, the boarding should a...
-Porch And Piazza
Before the clapboarding or shingles of the walls can be completed, the porch and piazza finish must be put up. The floors should be framed with the joists running parallel with the house walls so that...
-Clapboarding And Siding
Clapboarding is done in sections, from staging successively lowered as the work progresses. Each section is built upward from the staging, its top board being slipped under the lowest board of the pre...
-Wall Shingles
If the walls were to be shingled, the same care would have to be taken as in shingling the roof, except that the shingles on the walls may be exposed five or six inches and they may be of a quality ca...
-Lathing And Plastering
By the time that the outside finish has been brought to this stage, the inside of the house will have been given over to a new set of mechanics, the lathers. The trade of lathing, although a wood work...
-Corner Beads
The use of corner beads is a matter of custom, being general in New England, and more rarely used in the West. In recent years the use of metal corner beads has become common, and these are to be pref...
-Lathing
Being satisfied that the rough work has been put in place correctly, the lathers are set to work, and it will be well to visit the building before much of the lathing has been done, to see that the la...
-Metal Laths
The use of metal lathing is continually increasing and is a practice which should be encouraged even for wooden houses. This form of lathing holds the plaster more firmly and is not so liable to crack...
-Mixing
For the best result the lime should be thoroughly slaked at least twenty-four hours before adding the hair, which must be thoroughly beaten up and mixed with the lime paste with a hoe, and the necessa...
-Applying The Mortar
When the mortar is ready for putting on the laths, we must see that the first or scratch coat is well trowelled to push it through the spaces between the laths so as to form a good key. In ordinary tw...
-Concreting
When the last of the plastering has been completed the concreting of the cellar should be begun so that it may be drying out with the plastering. For this the best cement must be used, mixed in the pr...
-Fireplaces
While the plastering and concreting are drying out the finished fireplaces are usually built These are to be of bricks and should be built with a splay of from six to eight inches to the sides. (See F...
-Plumbing
As soon as the plasterers have removed their stagings from the house, the plumber can at once complete his piping work. In some cases it will have been necessary to run the main soil pipes concealed b...
-Lead Pipes
Lead pipes will be most easily examined on delivery, when the ends of the coil will be stamped with some figures or letters to denote the weight per foot. After the pipe has been cut it will be next t...
-Brass Pipes
For the hot water system brass pipes are to be used as they are not affected by the alternate warmth and chill of the water, which would cause lead pipes to sag between the supports. Indeed, if the ad...
-Iron Piping
If the cost of brass piping proves to be excessive, a good quality of iron pipe may be substituted where there is danger of corrosion of lead or of its bursting by great pressure. Iron pipe may be obt...
-Waste Pipes And Traps
The waste pipe or outlet of every plumbing fixture must have, as near as possible to the fixture, a trap, to prevent foul odors and sewer gas from issuing. The simplest form of trap, and in its improv...
-Fixtures
In general, the ideal of any kind of plumbing fixtures consists of a bowl, tub or closet in one piece, supplied by a sure and quick flow of water, and emptied by a simple and ample discharge. The supe...
-Connections And Vents
Close attention should be paid to the connection between the closet and the soil pipe as this, except in the case of the hopper closet with metal trap, will come on the sewer side of the trap and must...
-Tanks And Flushing
The usual way to provide for a sure supply of water to flush out the closet has been to fit up over it a copper-lined tank supplied from the house service and regulated by a ball cock. The operation o...
-Bowl And Tub
Not so much choice is to be found in the selection of bowls and tubs. Of the former the main difference is to be found in the overflow and waste, These appliances have advanced from the old fashioned ...
-Heating Apparatus
While the plumbing work is being done, another set of men have been putting in the heating apparatus. Selection The selection of the heating apparatus will depend upon local custom, expense and pers...
-Furnace
For economy of fuel we find recommended a furnace of the type known as indirect draft. In this type the heated gases are ordinarily obliged to pass downward to a radiating chamber at the base and then...
-Steam Heating
Another efficient method of heating for country houses, is by direct steam radiation. This consists in circulating steam through radiators or coils placed directly in the rooms and halls to be heated....
-One-Pipe Relief System
In this system the arrangement of the cellar piping is the same as in the wet return previously described, but the supply to the radiators consists of but one pipe, taken off from the main supply in...
-One-Pipe Circuit System
In this system the main supply is carried to the ceiling of the cellar and there makes a complete circuit of the building at a downward pitch and connects again with the boiler below the water line. (...
-Valves And Connections
Careful examination should be made of the valves and pipe connections to see that they are efficient and properly applied. Many styles of valves are available, and only well known or well tested patte...
-Boilers
Many of the ordinary types of steam boilers are used for steam heating and in addition to these there is a cast iron sectional boiler which is used for dwelling houses to a great extent. (Fig. 64.) Th...
-Hot Water Heating
Another method of heating is by a similar application of direct hot water radiation. This consists in circulating hot water through radiators, which are placed in the rooms as in the case of direct st...
-Hot Water Piping
The system of hot water piping consists of a free circulation of water from the heater to the radiators and back to the heater again. The supply pipe is taken off at the top of the heater and main and...
-Valves
Special valves are made for use with hot water radiators, the main advantage being a device for quick closing, a half turn being usually sufficient to open or close the valve. Connections with the rad...
-Hot Water Heaters. Radiators
The heater differs from a steam boiler mainly in the omission of the space allowed for steam, the hot water heater being filled with water in circulation instead of steam, so that it is essential that...
-Architraves
When the door frames are set the next operation will be to set the door and window architraves, called in some localities door and window trim, although casing is perhaps the more common term. The...
-Stairs
Close attention must be given the stairs to secure a satisfactory result. In the beginning the stringers must be examined to see if they correspond to the plans in the number of steps, and that ample ...
-Windows
As a part of the finishing of the inside of the house will come the adjustment of the sashes and doors. The sashes are held in place by stop beads, which are strips of wood usually one-half an inch in...
-Doors And Trimmings
The last of the interior fittings to be applied are usually the doors. These are of two classes, stock doors and doors made to order. Stock doors are made in certain regular sizes, generally of pine...
-Custom-Made Doors
The doors of the principal rooms should be made to order. If of pine or whitewood they may be made solid but must be of kiln-dried stock and kept perfectly dry. The tenons should be made, as specified...
-Hardware Of Doors
The hanging and fitting of the doors is a matter of great nicety and should be intrusted only to careful workmen. The hardware for an ordinary door will consist of the hinges, or butts, the lock, kn...
-Locks
The variety of door locks is so great that mention can be made only of some of the distinguishing features According to their construction, locks are generally either tumbler locks or cylinder lock...
-Bolts
Of greater protection than locks on a door are bolts, which, being operated from one side only, are secure against picking. The simplest and least noticeable of these are the mortise bolts which set i...
-Exterior Painting
The outside finish of the house should have received as soon as put up the first or priming coat of paint, this is usually done more or less by piecemeal as the different parts of the house are comple...
-Puttying
After the application of the priming coat, all the nail holes and cracks must be stopped with putty, the nails having previously been set by the carpenter when the finish was put up. The final pain...
-Colors
In the choice of a color for the exterior a few general suggestions may properly be made here. In the first place, it is of prime importance that the house should harmonize in its exterior colors with...
-Exterior Stains
For shingled houses, stains of various colors and ingredients are often used. These are not so durable as paint, but have the merit of preserving the texture of the shingles, which is completely lost ...
-Priming
Before priming the painted finish, all knots, sap and strong discolorations must be killed with a strong coat of shellac-to prevent any staining, which will occur unless this is done. The painter mu...
-Inside Painting
While the same principles apply to the inside painting as to the outside, more care should be exercised in the application. Puttying must be done with the greatest of care, and a greater skill in the ...
-Varnish And Shellac
Where a natural finish is desired the treatment will vary from the simple application of a coat or two of oil, which makes the cheapest and poorest finish, to five or six coats of shellac, rubbed dow...
-Shellac And Varnish
The choice of shellac or varnish for finishing will depend upon the use, condition, or situation of the work to be finished. In conditions of dampness or where the finish will be subjected to the act...
-Tinting
It will generally be found necessary that the ceilings and walls which are not covered with paper or hangings, shall be tinted or frescoed. This is a matter which needs to be done by care ful workmen ...
-Plate Glass
For lights more than five feet square plate glass must be used. This may be obtained in three grades, French plate and two gradas of American plate. French plate, and the first or silvering quality of...
-Building Superintendence. Part II. City Buildings
The requirements of city buildings, which are for the main part similar to the practices which we have already considered, are, nevertheless, in many essentials, distinct. In the first place, the circ...
-Party Walls
Of great importance in laying out our building will be the existing agreements in regard to party walls. In most cases it will be found that there has been signed an agreement relating to the construc...
-Pile Foundations
Piles are made of wood, cast iron, concrete, or steel, but for ordinary building they are usually made from the trunks of trees, and should be straight and sound, and at least eight inches in diameter...
-Footing Stones And Concrete
Whether the bearing be piles or the natural earth, the bottom of the foundation will usually consist of large stones or of concrete. If three rows of piles are used they may be covered as shown in Fig...
-Foundation Walls
The foundation walls of a city building above the footing course, are usually built of stone. Concrete is used to some extent, and brick will be used for the party wall where there is to be a cellar b...
-Rubble Walls
For a foundation of a lighter character, rubble stone may be used. This consists of stone split from a ledge with no preparation other than breaking up with a stone hammer, and squaring one edge and f...
-Derrick Stones
All of the stones which are suitable for the heavy walls which we have described should he large, and will require the use of derricks in handling. If the building is to be one of great size or height...
-Thickness Of Walls
The thickness of foundation walls in all large cities is controlled by law, and in general will require that walls to a depth of ten or twelve feet below the ground shall be four inches thicker than t...
-Brickwork And Cut Stone
In the superstructure of a city building of ordinary height, say up to five or six stories, and excepting the so-called skeleton construction, we shall usually find that brickwork forms the greater pa...
-Brick Laying
To perform the operation of erecting a brick building it is necessary to lay the carefully chosen bricks upon each other, with a bed of some kind of mortar between. Ordinary brickwork is laid in commo...
-Bonding
The strength of a brick wall depends not only upon the bricks, the mortar, and the workmanship, but the assembling of the different members, the bond or arrangement adopted for tying together the sepa...
-Hollow Walls
To overcome the tendency of a solid brick wall to transmit heat, cold, or dampness, hollow walls are often used. A given number of bricks, if built as a hollow wall, will make a more stable wall than ...
-Freezing Of Brickwork
To obtain a satisfactory result, bricks should never be laid in freezing weather. If the temperature is much below 40 F. during the day, so that it is likely to freeze during the night, salt may ...
-Arches
In the erection of brick walls, especial care should be given to the construction of arches which will be necessary to span the openings. Arches, in general, should be laid in cement mortar. The two p...
-Cement Mortar
All mason-work below ground should be laid in cement mortar, and all arches or heavily loaded piers as well. In many city laws, the use of cement mortar is required to a certain proportion of the heig...
-Sand
The proportion of sand used in mortar should vary with the kind of cement and the use for which the work is intended. With Rosendale cement, the proportion of sand should not exceed three to one, and ...
-Lime And Cement
Lime is now manufactured in nearly all parts of the country, but differs in character in different localities. In using a lime which is not already familiar, some inquiry should be made as to its prop...
-Hydraulic Lime And Cement
Some limes, after burning, contain enough clay or silica to acquire the property of setting under water and are called hydraulic limes, but are used to very little extent, as their qualities are more ...
-Brick Veneer
In some localities, dwellings and light mercantile or public buildings are built with a frame of studs and boarding, veneered on the outside with four inches of brick. In this construction, the streng...
-Waterproofing Of Walls
Brick walls in exposed situations are often treated with some substance to render them waterproof. One of the most successful processes is known as Sylvester's Process, and consists in applying two ...
-Efflorescence
Very disagreeable and very common is the white efflorescence which often appears upon the face of the bricks, due to the salts of soda and potash being dissolved by the water and left on the surface b...
-Brickwork Superintendence
In superintending brickwork, the main things to be observed have been pointed out in connection with the construction. Especial care should be taken to see that the bricks are properly wet, that suffi...
-Cut Stonework
First in consideration of the superintendence of stonework is the preparation of the material. In former times, for a work of importance, the stone was often brought to the building site in the rough,...
-Finishing Of Stone
The method of finishing a stone has a great effect, not only upon its appearance, but upon its durability. The less pounding a stone receives the stronger it will be, since the repeated jar tends to s...
-Rubble
Of the different kinds of stonework, rubble masonry requires less preparation of the material than any other use of the stone, and covers a wide range of construction, from ordinary foundation walls, ...
-Laying Stone Masonry
The bed upon which the stones are laid should be level, and cleared of dust or refuse, and well moistened with water. Upon this the bed of mortar is spread evenly. Wooden wedges of the thickness of th...
-Bonding Stone Masonry
Care must be taken that no vertical joint in any course comes over a joint in the course below, but the stones should break joints or overlap, preferably to an extent of from once to onceand-a-half th...
-Quoins, Jambs And Lintels
The corner stones of a building are called quoins, and they are often given prominence over the face of the wall, as in Fig. 143. In broken ashlar the quoins should be as large in height as the larges...
-Columns, Arches And Trimmings
Colunms, where the material will allow, should be cut in one piece with separate capitals and bases, and great care should be taken in cutting, and also in setting, to have the bed joints perfectly le...
-Upper Portion Of Building
Arches, if too large to be cut with solid stones, may be built up where they are required to show both sides. (Fig. 148.) In the setting of stone arches great care is necessary to preserve the perfect...
-General Rules For Laying Stone
1. Build the masonry, as far as possible, in a series of courses, perpendicular, or as nearly so as possible, to the direction of the pressure which they have to bear, and by breaking joints, avoid al...
-Roofing And Metal Work
With the completion of the exterior masonry of a building will come, in most cases, the covering in, as practically nothing further than the rough work of flooring can be done inside until the work is...
-Slate Roofing
On roofs which pitch more than five inches to the foot, slates may be used. In this case the boarding should be matched and covered with tarred paper. On this surface the slates are laid in layers beg...
-Flashings
Valleys in slate roofs should be open valleys of metal at least eighteen inches wide, often laid, like a tin roof, with the end joints locked and soldered and the edges securely nailed to the roof hoa...
-Tiles
The use of tiles for roofing, although by no means a modern practice, has of late years become more general in this country. Tiles are made in a variety of shapes, the general principle, in all cases,...
-Composition Roofing
For roofs of a pitch of | inch to the foot or less, a composition roofing, made of several thicknesses of paper coated with tar, and covered with gravel on top, may be used to advantage. The mode of c...
-Gutters And Conductors
The best material for metal conductors is copper, but galvanized iron and tin are used to some extent. The usual form of a copper gutter is shown in Fig. 158, but it is often necessary that the face ...
-Conductors
In the case of the inside conductors above referred to, cast iron soil pipes may be used; and these, if carried down in a brick wall, should, if possible, be run in interior walls, and at any rate wit...
-Bay Windows
Perhaps the greatest use of galvanized iron at present is found in the construction of bay windows. In this construction the essentials are lightness and strength, so that it is usual to construct a l...
-Tinned Doors And Shutters
Another use to which tin is frequently put is the making of metal-covered doors for the fire protection of exposed windows and other openings. Many city laws and insurance rules require that all windo...
-Skylights
Another use of metal for exterior work is found in the framework of skylights. These, if large, are made up of light steel angles or T-irons, and covered with sheet metal, sometimes with, a lining in ...
-Framing And Flooring
Frame The exterior wood framing of city buildings will in most cases be confined to roofs, since no exterior walls within the building limits of modern cities are allowed to be constructed of wood. W...
-Iron And Steel Supports
For large spans and heavy weights it will be often necessary to use iron or steel columns with wooden girders. If cast-iron columns are used, they should not be made with a shell less than three-quart...
-Cap And Base
The top and bottom of all cast-iron columns should be turned off in a lathe to insure a bearing at right angles to the axis, and plates should be used to increase the bearing. These plates are cast wi...
-Pipe Columns
Heavy wrought-iron pipe is often used for columns, a cap and base being sometimes cast and screwed on by a thread; and a patented column formed by filling the pipe with cement, may be obtained ready f...
-Floor Beams
The use of wood or steel for girders will require different methods of construction. If wooden girders are used they may be set wholly or partially below the floor timbers, or flush with them. If ther...
-Flush Framing
If the girder is to be framed flush with the timbers, the use of stirrup irons or patent hangers is recommended, as preserving the full strength of the girder. In this case the timbers should be broug...
-Crowning
All floor timbers having a span of more than sixteen feet should be crowned, that is, the top of the joist is cut to the shape of an arc of a circle, having a rise of one-quarter inch to every sixteen...
-Slow Burning And Mill Construction
The use of the methods of heavy timbering just described, with floors of matched or splined plank, and with no wood partitions or furrings enclosing hollow spaces, constitutes what is generally termed...
-Flooring
As soon as the floor timbers are in place, it is generally the custom to lay down a rough floor. This makes a platform upon which subsequent operations are carried on and also forms the foundation for...
-Tiling And Mosaic
Where tiling or mosaic is used for the upper floor in wooden construction, special preparation will be needed to obtain a thick bed of concrete or bricks under the tiles. To do this the rough floor m...
-Tiling
Tiles of various patterns and materials are used to a large extent for floors and walls of bathrooms, corridors and counting rooms. For fireplaces, and walls and floors of bathrooms, where the tiles a...
-Grille Work
An important feature of a modern building is the grille work made of various metals and used for protection, decoration, or effect to a great extent. For exterior ornament or protection, grilles will ...
-Mail Chutes
For the convenience of the occupants of offices above the first floor of any building, the system of mailing letters by means of a specially constructed chute connected with the mail box at the bottom...
-Fireproof Building
The most modern feature of city building construction is the erection of the high business blocks which form the main part of the commercial districts of all cities. Here a variety of problems present...
-Height Of Buildings
As the owner will naturally desire to obtain as many floors as possible, it will be necessary to consult, first of all, the building laws of the city in which the building is erected, to determine the...
-The Building Site
While these matters are under consideration by the owner, an examination of the proposed site will be profitable, to gain necessary information in regard to party walls and the condition of adjoining ...
-Skeleton Construction Columns
The columns used in skeleton construction are generally made up of a combination of the standard shapes of steel bars. One of the commonest forms of steel column is the Z-bar column, shown in Fig. 196...
-Erection
To save time and labor, it is customary to run the columns in lengths of two stories each. This takes more metal, but the gain in time and labor will generally offset it. The splicing of columns must ...
-Caissons
Where the soil is too yielding or the necessary area is not available, foundations are sometimes carried to the bedrock. This is done by the use of caissons which are sunk through the soft material to...
-Cantilever Foundations
In buildings where, for any reason, it is not desirable or permissible to build foundations under an adjoining building, cantilever girders are used to support the columns at the party line. The princ...
-Floor Construction
The size and spacing of the floor beams will depend upon the style of floor construction which may be adopted. The original fireproof floor consisted in spacing beams five or six feet apart, and turni...
-Terra-Cotta Floor Arches
Hollow terra-cotta blocks, moulded in the form of a flat arch, are used to a large extent for fireproof floors, and are to be obtained in a variety of patterns and devices. These various patterns may ...
-Concrete Floors
The use of concrete for floors has become an important factor in the construction of fireproof buildings. Concrete floors combine the qualities of strength and ease of manufacture with lightness and l...
-Roof And Ceilings
As the roofs of high buildings are in general made with very little pitch, the same construction may be used here as for the floors, but a special treatment will be required to retain a level ceiling ...
-Wind Pressure
A distinctive problem of high building construction is the provision for lateral resistance to wind pressure. Unless the building is more than four times its width in height, the effect of the wind pr...
-Terra-Cotta Covering
The adaptability of terra cotta to the exterior adornment and fireproofing of buildings is so great that its use has become general in all places where durability and resistance to heat are essential....
-Types Of Wind Bracing
Fig. 228. Fig. 229. For terra-cotta finish which has no great projection from the line of support, ties of one-quarter inch rods may be hooked into the ribs of the terra cotta and secured to t...
-Partitions Of Fireproof Buildings
The partitions of fireproof buildings may be built of brick, terra-cotta, tiles, or plaster blocks, or of light iron studding with metal lathing and plaster. Brick partitions, to resist the passage of...
-Metal Lath Partitions
For a saving of floor space, very thin partitions may be made by using small steel bars for studding; these are usually 3/4-inch channel bars set vertically about a foot apart and turned at a right an...
-Expanded Metal Lathing
This form of lathing is made from strips of thin and tough sheet steel, which are cut at regular intervals and then expanded by being wrenched or pushed into open meshes, greater or less, as the cut...
-Hard Plaster
The use of the so-called hard plaster, for the finishing of business and public buildings, is to be advised wherever the slight increase in expense can be borne. For business blocks, the saving in t...
-Scagliola
For interior finish, scagliola, or imitation marble, is used to some extent for columns, dadoes, etc. This is made upon a ground of lime mortar containing a large proportion of lime and hair. When thi...
-Pipes And Conduits
The running of pipes and conduits in fireproof buildings brings forward a system, differing in some essentials from the ordinary piping of buildings with wooden floors. In the first place, less cuttin...
-Plumbing Pipes
The main soil, waste and vent pipes should be of wrought iron with screw joints, not only on account of the great weight of the high stacks of pipes, but because the expansion and contraction of the g...
-Gas And Electric Piping
Before the plastering is begun, the pipes for gas and the conduits for electric wires, must be run. These, being small, may be concealed, if desired, although the idea of exposing gas piping is becomi...
-Heating Pipes
The pipes for heating the building will in general be run outside of the plaster, and will be bronzed to match the radiators and other exposed piping. The number and size of the pipes will depend upon...
-Heating System
In almost every large building, the exhaust steam from the engines necessary to run elevators and dynamos will suffice to heat the rooms, and this may be done in two ways. The exhaust steam may be for...
-Lavatory Fittings
The plumbing fixtures of an office building need not differ to a great extent from house linings, and the same principles of construction will apply. The fixtures will consist mainly of bowls or sinks...
-Contracts And Specifications. Part I
In order to build intelligently and with profit, it is essential - after the scheme has been developed on the draivings - that the materials and their qualities be so selected and designated that ther...
-The Owner
The owner is the autocrat; his wishes are to govern; and, unless his interest can be thoroughly aroused, the transaction will probably end unsatisfactorily. There is no person so hard to serve as one ...
-The Contractor
As a general thing, the only object the contractor has in mind in taking the work is the pecuniary profit to himself in the transaction. It is rarely that satisfactory results can be obtained from a m...
-The Specification Writer
The central figure in this transaction is the specification writer. His tact must arrange the conditions under which the work is to be done; his technical knowledge must supply the data, and set forth...
-Outline Of The Work
For illustrations in connection with the following pages, the construction of a city house is selected, on a corner lot 100 feet front on the Avenue, by 150 feet deep, on side street, a party wall on ...
-Studies In Materials
The primary object of this paper is instruction; and there are introduced here certain problems carried along lines which show the particular qualities of the material under consideration. Special att...
-Portland Cement and Sand
Sand will be considered only in connection with cement (Portland cement). See notes under caption, Cement. The province of sand with cement is similar to that of brick in masonry, on a small scale. ...
-Cement
There is probably no other building material on which so much has been written within the last ten years; and there will be no attempt here to discuss the question except from an extremely practical s...
-Rubbed Down
First-Floor Plan Shown on Opposite Page. For Exteriors, See Page 234. The third class is one imported from Belgium under various brands carrying English names, such as Eagle, Star, etc., the pack...
-Fineness
What is known as a 100-mesh sieve - that is, a sieve with 100 spaces to an inch - should be obtained. Any first-class hardware store can furnish the wire either from stock or on order and a home-made ...
-Initial Set
The time for the initial set is determined approximately as follows: Mix a small amount of neat cement (that is, clear cement without sand) with water, to the consistency of stiff mortar; and observe...
-Soundness
This is one of the most important of physical tests, for it indicates whether there probably exist elements which will eventually disintegrate the mass. The action of pats should be carefully observed...
-Non-Staining Cements
There is a very general prejudice against the use of the ordinary Portland cement for setting limestone, sandstone, and marble, the theory being that the moisture from the mixture, in getting away, tr...
-Lumber For Construction And Finish
Local conditions affect lumber very much. While the great lumber interests formulate and publish schedules of grades, the user cannot, from their designations and descriptions of grades alone, make an...
-Building Roofs
In the previous examples or problems, attention has been given to putting the student in line of thinking in materials. Under this heading, consideration will be given to the combination of materials ...
-Use Of Words And General Requirements
It should be the object of every specification writer to have the words as exact in the expression of requirements relative to materials as are the drawings in showing their forms; and no more words s...
-Electric Wiring
The item of Electric Wiring, while entirely within the province of the architect to lay out, is of such a mechanical nature that it is rarely advisable to include it in the general specification. Few ...
-Specifications For a Residence Building to be erected for John Doe
AT THE CORNER OF A AVENUE AND B STREET, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS Richard Roe, Architect General Conditions Contract Drawings The drawings which will with this specification form the basis of an agreement...
-Specifications For a Residence Building to be erected for John Doe. Continued
Contractor's Foreman The Contractor is to have a representative fully empowered to act in all cases for him on the site whenever any work is in progress or material being delivered; and neither the O...
-Sewer And Water Connections
The sewer and water have already been brought on to the site. The sewer terminates at a brick manhole, 3 feet 6 inches inside diameter, with iron cover at grade about 5 feet from the side line of the ...
-Masonry Materials
Cement All cement required is to be Portland cement of such fineness that 90 per cent will pass through a 100-mesh sieve. The initial set shall be in not less than 30 minutes; and pats of neat cement...
-Concrete Work
The concrete work of all footings and exterior foundation walls below grade, will be composed of 1 part Portland cement, 4 parts sand, and 7 parts screened gravel or broken stone. In order to make the...
-Basement Floor
After the lining of the first floor is laid, the basement floor is to be put in. On the base of concrete 3 inches thick, composed as for footings, before it has set, put a wearing-surface 1/2 inch thi...
-Brick Masonry
Rough brick partition walls in basement, and all chimneys and the backing of all exterior walls, will be laid and thoroughly embedded in Portland cement mortar, 1 part cement to 4 parts sand; and all ...
-Face Brick
Face brick will be used for the visible surfaces of the exterior brick walls and chimneys. Each course will alternate headers and stretchers, and the facing and backing are to be carried up together a...
-Setting Of Granite And Soft Stone
The joints are to be 3/8 inch thick, with expanded metal as required above therein, the mortar to be of the same composition as for brick. The contractor will be responsible for any staining of the f...
-Carpenter Work
Materials - Rough Lumber. All wood which is not exposed to view in rooms above basement, may be of pine, spruce, or hemlock, sized and seasoned. Joists And Stringers Joists and stair stringers must...
-Carpentry Construction
All joists are to be set 1 foot 4 inches on centers with a bearing on all supporting walls of 4 inches. When in brick walls, the ends are to be beveled so that the upper edge is just on a line with th...
-Canvas
All canvas must weigh, when thoroughly dry, 10 ounces to the square yard, and must not lose over 5 per cent of its dry weight after being soaked in water 10 hours and so rubbed as to take out all matt...
-Tile
The steep portions of the roof are to be covered with red tile burned from a tough clay; and all nails or wire necessary to secure them permanently to the roof are to be of copper. If wire is used, th...
-Plastering above Basement
There will be no plastering in basement; but all the walls above are to be finished with 3-coat work. All brick walls are furred with terra-cotta, on which the plaster is to be placed. All other surfa...
-Paint
All exterior woodwork is to be primed as soon as in place, with raw linseed oil and a very small amount of yellow ocher; and later to have two additional coats of raw linseed and white lead paint mixe...
-Plumbing. Fixtures
The bathtubs are to be cast iron, with roll rim and standing waste, enameled on the inside and over the roll, the outside finished with 3 coats of white lead and oil paint and one coat of outside varn...
-Soil Pipe
All soil pipe and fittings are to be of cast iron of the grade known to the trade as Extra Heavy - that is, the grade in which a 5-foot length of 4-inch pipe weighs not less than 65 pounds, coated o...
-Gas Piping
Inasmuch as the Gas Company lays down full and complete rules governing the sizes of pipes and methods of running them, which must be followed, this portion of the work is not set forth here further t...
-Heating
The Owner will furnish, deliver, and set up in the cellar, but without any smoke- or steam-pipe connections, a cast-iron, sectional, low-pressure steam boiler; and the Contractor is to furnish and pla...
-Proposal Sheet
...................the undersigned hereby proposes to construct a dwelling for......................................................... in strict accordance with drawings numbered . . ,.................
-The Formal Contract
After the completion of the drawings and specifications, it is customary to award a contract - i.e., to enter into an agreement for carrying out the work; and an instrument is drawn for the signature ...
-Form Of Agreement Between Owner And Builder
AN AGREEMENT entered into this 15th day of September, 1907, by and between...................., of Chicago, Owner, party of the first part, and...................., also of Chicago, Builder, party of ...
-Form Of Agreement Between Owner And Builder #2
Version #2 of the agreement AN AGREEMENT entered into this 15th day of September, 1907, by and between...................., of Chicago, Owner, party of the first part, and...................., also o...
-Receipt For Insurance Policies
(To Be Detached And Delivered To Contractor After Signing.) Received of...................., Contractor, fire insurance policies as follows: .............................., in total amount $2,600.00,...
-Government Contracts
It is not generally known to what an extent the Treasury Department of the United States is a builder, or to what extent its demands for material and labor influence the market; nor do many contractor...
-Character Of Buildings
The buildings under the control of the Treasury Department are for the use of the civil branches of the Government, such as Postoffices, Courts, Customs, Internal Revenue, Marine Hospitals, and Quaran...
-Building Conditions
It is a matter of interest to a very large body of contractors, sub-contractors, artisans of all callings, and material men and manufacturers, how the Department builds, and in what ways it differs fr...
-Building Conditions. Part 2
Many years ago a Departmental order forbade the requirement of any particular item so as to limit competition, or the mention of any particular material or appliance, or its equal; as a consequence,...
-Building Conditions. Part 3
In order that the exact nature of the form which has to be signed by parties to whom contracts for Treasury buildings are awarded may be seen, a specimen contract is herewith reproduced, with occasion...
-Building Conditions. Part 4
30 said party of the second part shall fail in the due performance of the 31 entire work to be performed under this contract, by and at the time 32 herein mentioned or referred to, the said party of...
-Building Conditions. Part 5
2 that the said party of the second part will make any omissions from, 3 additions to, or changes in, the work or materials herein provided for 4 whenever required by said party of the first part, t...
-Building Conditions. Part 6
43 over, secure, and protect such of the work as may be liable to sustain 44 injury from the weather, or otherwise; provided that for all each sus- 45 pensions and other delays caused by the said pa...
-Seals Of Wax Or Wafer
Note. - It will be observed that on each page, both of form of contract and of bond, each type line is numbered, 1, 2, 3, etc. This is customary in all such government documents, and is for the purpos...
-Contracts And Specifications. Part II
Prefatory Note. - Part I was intended to initiate the student in the fundamental principles of specification writing, by setting forth the nature of the preparation desirable and necessary for success...
-General Scope Of The Specification
The specification presents the general conditions under which the work indicated by the drawings is to be executed. It calls for the kind and quality of labor and materials desired, and contains all t...
-General Scope Of The Specification. Part 2
It should be remembered that it is the province of the workmen to comprehend and not to originate; and so the statement of what is to be constructed should be made very clear, leaving nothing to the i...
-General Scope Of The Specification. Part 3
The opening description of the work should be straight-forward, clear, and concise, and the specification carefully classified according to the different trades, so that each sub-contractor and the es...
-Architect
This requirement is inserted in order to prevent workmen of indifferent character getting onto the work. It is a very delicate problem for the Architect to pass judgment on sub-contractors; and if, af...
-Masonry
Alterations and Shoring. Demolition and Removal. Stone Masonry. Brick - Terra Cotta. Etc., Etc. ...
-Steel And Iron - Structural. Ornamental. Etc., Etc
After this skeleton has been prepared, the major part of the work is done, as the filling-in and detailing of requirements under each heading is a comparatively simple operation. In smaller work, whe...
-Specification Reminder General Conditions
Division of Work. Work to be Done. Quality. Materials and Labor. Delivery of Materials. The Contractor. Laying Out the Work. Engineer. Permits. Building Laws. Fences. Office. Vouchers. In...
-Dwelling Heating
There are five principal methods of heating dwellings - namely, by Fireplaces, by Stoves, by Furnace, by Steam boiler, and by Hot-water boiler, all adapted to fuels in common use. Fireplaces are suit...
-Materials And Labor
All materials and labor required for the complete execution of the work are to be of the best quality unless otherwise provided, and are to be furnished in place by the Contractor; also all scaffoldin...
-Time For Completion
Work is to commence at once, and is to proceed with promptness and despatch. Completion of work and delivery of building to Owner, to be six months after date of contract. Times of completion of the ...
-Excavation
Note to Student. - For this part of the work, it is of advantage to draw a lot plan. This should show the system of drainage, which, if not included in the Architect's drawings, is often not very sati...
-Preparation Of Site
The Contractor will stake out the building, and will erect permanent batter-boards at such points that they will not be disturbed during the construction of the foundations. Clear away lot for buildi...
-Lime, Cement, And Sand
All lime to be best quality Rockland or its equal, freshly burned; and all cement equal to first quality Rosendale. Brands to be approved by Architect. All sand to be clean and sharp. Portland cement,...
-Stone Work
Walls Furnish all materials and build walls and footings as shown on drawings, of good local stone in irregular courses, the first twelve inches to be laid dry in the trenches, and the remainder to b...
-Carpenter Work. Framing
The building is to be full-frame, all framed, braced, spiked, and pinned in the best and strongest manner, perfectly true and plumb. Filling-in studs will be nailed, and door and window caps cut into ...
-Carpenter Work. Part 2
All windows shown with meeting rail, or unless otherwise specified, to have pine frames made for double-hung sashes, with 7/8-inch hard pine pulley stiles, tongued into outside casings, beads, 3/4-inc...
-Carpenter Work. Part 3
Schedule: - To be used in dining room. Oak Unless otherwise specified, all oak to be best selected thoroughly seasoned American quartered white oak, to show good grain, and to be free from shakes, k...
-Carpenter Work. Part 4
Schedule: - Kitchen, pantry, serving room, bathroom. Bathtub Bathtub to be painted outside, four coats; last coat to be an enamel gloss coat. Exposed Piping All piping that shows, to be given one ...
-Drains, Soil And Waste Pipes, And Vents
The plumber will make proper connections from point 10 feet outside of building, with a drain, by 5-inch iron pipe. Just inside house wall, place a 5-inch running trap with two cleanouts; and 5-inch ...
-Lavatory
In bathroom - one 15 by 19-inch straight back, accessible overflow basin, with brass plug in bowl, operated by rod outside of basin (approved pattern). Bolts and nuts through rim of basin. Top of basi...
-Kitchen Sink
One 36-inch by 24-inch by 8-inch soapstone sink, with 12-inch back, and soap dish. Set on galvanized-iron standards. To waste through 6-inch lead trap. Supply through 3/4-inch compression bibs. Hose e...
-Water Supply
- Materials, Etc. All cold-water pipes and fittings are to be galvanized iron; and all hot-water and circulating pipes are to be iron-size brass, semi-annealed, with all fittings of brass. Where expo...
-Gasfitting
- Description. Provide and put in gas piping according to this specification, and as shown on plan, according to the rules of the local Gas-Light Company. Cutting to be done by carpenter, not by gasf...
-The Architect In His Legal Relations. Contracts
It is often wise for an architect to regulate his course with regard to legal considerations. An architect in active practice cannot acquire such a knowledge of the principles of law as will enable hi...
-The Law Of Contracts
The building contract, commonly made between the owner and builder, confers certain powers upon the architect. While the latter is not a party to this contract, and so cannot enforce it, he is by rea...
-Quantum Meruit
The contract which is implied in law is always to pay the fair value of what has been received. The Latin words quantum meruit, meaning as much as it is worth, are therefore used to describe an action...
-Express Contracts - Legality Of Contract
In general, a contract which violates statute law, or any principle of the common law or of public policy, cannot be enforced. This may be of importance to architects in connection with restrictive bu...
-Parties
In order to have a good contract, the parties must be legally competent. As an infant is favored by the law, a person on coming of age may affirm or repudiate contracts made while under the disability...
-Consent
In order to have a valid contract, the parties must have, and must communicate, a common intention. Their minds must meet in expressed agreement. If this element is absent, there can be no binding con...
-Consideration
Any promise, not under seal, requires what is called consideration to render it legally a binding contract. If a promise be under seal the formality of the seal is the mark of the contract, as is cons...
-Conditions
Performance of a contract by one party may be made wholly or in part conditional upon performance by another. Thus a contract by which A promises to render certain services, and X agrees to pay for th...
-Construction Of Contracts
Disputes often arise over the meaning of contracts after they are made and perhaps reduced to writing. This may come from careless drawing; it may be due to the necessity of applying the contract to n...
-Assignability Of Contracts
Contracts which involve personal services, where the element of individuality is important, cannot be assigned, and the estate of the person whose services are contracted for cannot be held to the con...
-Avoidance Of Contract
A contract made between competent parties, and apparently having all the legal requisties of a good contract, may still under certain circumstances be set aside by the court. If in the formation of a ...
-Reforming Contracts
Where a contract has been reduced to writing, but through a mistake, does not express the agreement of the parties, it may be reformed by a court so as to correspond with the real understanding. This ...
-Penalties And Liquidated Damages
If a contract provides that upon default by one party, that party shall pay to the other a certain sum, and it appears that the payment is intended as a penalty and was inserted only for the purpose o...
-Breach Of Contract Operating As Discharge
If one party to a contract is guilty of a serious breach thereof, the other party may thereupon have the right to treat the contract as terminated. The test is whether the breach goes, as is said, to ...
-Discharge By Consent
It hardly needs to be said that a contract may at any time be discharged by all the parties thereto. It is desirable to have the discharge, like the contract, clearly made in writing, so as to cover a...
-Suretyship
The relation of suretyship arises where besides an obligee, as, for instance a creditor, and the principal obligor, as a debtor, there is another person who becomes answerable for the debt or default ...
-The Law Of Agency
An architect may be empowered, and act, as agent of the owner. Aside from this possibility, the law of agency is so much involved in business transactions, that it is highly desirable to understand in...
-Duties Of Agent To Principal
The first duty of an agent is the strict and far reaching one of loyalty to his trust. In enforcing this the law looks not at the intent or effect in any given transaction, but at the tendency of such...
-Undisclosed Principal
When an agent, in dealing with a third party, does not disclose the name of his principal, the third party is at liberty, on finding out who the principal is, to choose between holding him responsible...
-Law And Equity
Our courts give relief of two classes, according as they sit as courts of law or courts of equity. Equitable powers were formerly exercised by separate courts; but now the higher courts generally have...
-Resort To Legal Proceedings
In regard to resort to the courts it is to be borne in mind that it is necessary not only to have a just case, but also to prove it. This proof may be before a jury if either side so chooses, and a li...
-Liens
A lien is a claim or hold upon the property of another as security for a debt or claim. Statutes in many states give so-called mechanics' liens upon land and buildings to various persons who have done...
-Bankruptcy And Insolvency
The statute law provides a method by which a person can, by giving up all his property and otherwise fulfilling the terms of the law, escape further liability upon ordinary debts. State laws upon this...
-Knowledge Of The Statute Law
A practicing architect should familiarize himself with such laws of the state, and such ordinances of the town or city in which he is employed as especially apply to his work. These laws and ordinance...
-Torts
Torts are a large class of wrongs arising not in a breach of a contractual duty owed by one person to another, but in the breach of a duty which the law imposes upon one member of society for the bene...
-In General
The first part of an architect's duty in any given employment is ordinarily the drawing of plans. In this work he acts substantially as another person of skill might act in another capacity - a lawyer...
-The Architect's Position Under The Building Contract
Whatever powers the architect has, under the building contract, which is a contract between the owner and the contractor, are not powers which he himself can enforce. The parties to that contract have...
-As Regards Certificates
It is commonly provided in the building contract that payments for work shall be conditional upon the giving of certificates by the architect. Such a provision in an ordinary contract applies to extra...
-As Regards Certificates. Continued
The contractor may also recover payment without producing the certificate which was made a condition precedent, if the owner has waived his right to insist upon the-condition. A California case held t...
-As Regards The Settlement Of Disputes
As already shown, an agreement between owner and contractor that the architect's certificate shall be conclusive between them is binding, and under such an agreement the architect's certificate can be...
-As To Inspection
The ordinary contract provides that the contractor shall furnish proper facilities for inspection by the architect, and shall replace materials and take down work condemned by the architect as unsound...
-As To Other Powers Under The Building Contract
Wherever any act of the architect has by the building contract been given a certain force as regards owner and builder, the architect must be careful to make his action exactly like that described in ...
-Relation Of The Architect To The Owner
An architect, like any other professional man, impliedly contracts with his employer that he has the ordinary skill, knowledge, and judgment possessed by men of his profession, and that he will use th...
-Architect As Agent For The Owner
The architect should be extremely careful that he has authority from the owner before assuming to bind him in any way. It is desirable to have such authority express and definite. In important matters...
-Contractor's Relation To The Architect
By the ordinary building contract, the contractor enters into obligations with the owner only. To the architect, who is not a party to the contract, the contractor owes no contractual duties which the...
-Architect's Duty Toward The Contractor
Although the architect is employed by the owner he must act fairly and honestly toward the contractor. This of course precludes any attempt to overreach the contractor, or any secret arrangement with ...
-Discrepancy In Plans
It sometimes happens that the details in the plans do not agree with the specifications prepared by the architect to go with the plans, or the small scale drawings do not agree with the detail drawing...
-Limit Of Cost
Where nothing is said about fences, terraces, grounds or other unusual items, the limit of cost given the architect will be supposed to cover only the bare cost of building, usually without screens, o...
-Liability Of The Architect
It has already been stated that an architect impliedly represents himself to be possessed of the skill and knowledge possessed by the average architect in that locality. If in fact he does not possess...
-Invitations To Compete
When a person, public body, or corporation advertises inviting architects to send in competitive designs, all designs sent in should conform exactly to the terms of the invitation sent out. If this is...
-Ownership Of Plans
In the absence of any agreement as to the ownership of plans, it is impossible to make any general statement as to the law on that point. Whether the property in the plans passes to the employer, or w...
-Compensation
The architect's legal right to compensation is, of course, a contract right, either under an express contract, if one exists, or under an implied contract. If an express contract fixes the rate of com...
-Practical Suggestions to The Nature Of The Soil
Before drawing plans an architect should inspect the proposed site, and determine the nature of the soil. If the building is to be on old foundations, he should observe these foundations, and determin...
-Appendix I. The Uniform Contract
Form of contract adopted and recommended for general use, by the American Institute a party of the second part (hereinafter designated the Owner ). Architects and the National Association of Builders...
-Appendix I. The Uniform Contract. Continued
..................................................................................................................................... Art. VII. Should the Contractor be delayed in the prosecution or ...
-Appendix II. Professional Practice Of Architects, And Schedule Of Usual And Proper Minimum Charges
Adopted by The American Institute of Architects and Revised 1903. The architect's professional services consist in making the necessary preliminary studies, working drawings, specifications, large sc...
-Practical Test Questions
A large number of test questions and problems are given in the following pages. These afford a valuable means of testing the reader's knowledge of the subjects treated. They will be found excellent pr...
-On The Subject Of Building Superintendence. Part I
1. What preparation and qualifications are essential to a superintendent of building operations? 2. What are batter boards, and how should they be prepared? What is a bench mark? 3. What is the adva...
-On The Subject Of Building Superintendence. Part II
1. What is the usual arrangement in regard to use of party walls? 2. How is a cellar or vault wall usually protected from dampness? What material is to be preferred? 3. Describe the method of constr...
-On The Subject Of Contracts And Specifications Part I
1. Describe generally the province of the specification. 2 Describe generally the characteristics of the specification 3. Describe generally the limits of the specification. 4. State the nature of ...
-On The Subject Of Contracts And Specifications. Part II
1. What is a Specification? What is a Contract? 2. Describe briefly the general functions of the specification. 3. What is the relation between the specification and the working drawings? When does ...
-On The Subject Of The Architect In His Legal. Relations
1. Supposing an architect and his client have bargained for the making of plans alone. The owner then writes to the architect offering to pay $250 for plans such as have been discussed. The architect ...
-Foreword Vol2
PLAN OF DREAMWOLD, THE FARM OF THOMAS W. LAWSON, ESQ., SCITUATE, MASS. Coolidge & Carlson, Architects, Boston, Mass. For Exterior View, Reproduced in Color, See Frontispiece in this Volume. ...
-Carpentry. Part I. Introduction
The carpenter has always been a worker in wood and probably will always be so, unless we are so foolish as to neglect the newer art of Forestry to such an extent that in the course of time we have no ...
-Timber In Its Natural State Classes Of Trees
There are in general four kinds of trees from which timber suitable for structural purposes may be obtained, which differ from each other in their manner of growth and in the details of their structur...
-Manner Of Growth
There is a marked difference between the four classes of trees mentioned above in regard to their manner of growth. The palms and bamboos are somewhat similar and are known as endogenous trees, differ...
-Details Of Wood Structure
If a piece of wood were to be examined carefully under a microscope it would be seen that it was a composite substance, made up of a great number of very small fibers, and that these fibers were not s...
-Grain
The arrangement of the fibers which go to make up a piece of timber give to it certain characteristics which are described as different conditions of the grain of the wood, the word grain being us...
-Defects In Wood
The fact that timber is not a manufactured material like iron or cement but is a natural product which has been formed by years of growth in the open where it has been all the while exposed to various...
-Heartshake
As indicated by the name, heartshake is a defect which shows itself at the heart of the tree in the center of the trunk. The appearance of a cross section of a log affected by heartshake is shown in F...
-Windshake
The defect known as a windshake is so-called on account of the belief that it is caused by the racking and wrenching to which the growing tree is subjected by high winds. It is also claimed that it is...
-Starshake
A starshake is not readily distinguished from a heartshake, as the appearance of a log of wood affected by one is very similar to that of a log affected by the other, but the difference between the tw...
-Dry Rot
The defects which have been mentioned above are all of such a kind that they can be readily detected in the timber before it has been put in position in a structure, and, therefore, the use of the tim...
-Wet Rot
There is another form of decay which affects wood in a manner somewhat similar to dry rot, but which takes place in the growing tree. It is known as wet rot and is caused by the wood becoming satura...
-Knots
Knots are more or less common in all timber, and consist of small pieces of dead wood which occupy a place in the body of the log with sound wood all around them. These bits of dead wood have no conne...
-Warping
This is the result of the evaporation or drying out of the water which is held in the cell walls of the wood in its natural state, and the shrinkage which naturally follows. If wood were perfectly reg...
-Checks
Another defect which is caused by the drying out of the timber and the consequent shrinkage of the cell walls is what is known as checking. In any log of wood there is always opportunity for shrinkage...
-Conversion Of Timber Into Lumber
Lumber may be found in lumber yards in certain shapes ready for use, having been cut from the logs and relieved of their outside covering of bark. The cutting up of the logs is done in the mills by ma...
-Waney Lumber
When a log of wood has been sawed up into boards, each board is apt to have along the edge a strip of the bark which was originally on the outside of the log, and the edges will not be square with the...
-Slabs
The pieces known as slabs are those which are left over after a log has been sawed up into boards. In cross section they are of the shape of a half moon, and are covered with bark. They are except for...
-Varieties Of Timber
Although there are a great many different kinds of trees growing in different parts of the world, only a comparatively small number of them yield wood which is used to any great extent in building wor...
-Conifers Or Needle-Leaved Trees
These trees are found mostly in the North, where they form large forests from which are taken the large quantities of timber of this kind used every year. The wood is very popular for use in rough bui...
-Cedar
The wood known as cedar has long been used in construction, as is illustrated by the references in the Bible to the Cedars of Lebanon from which the Temple of Solomon was constructed. The wood in us...
-Redwood
There is a wood which greatly resembles good red cedar and which is found only in the State of California. One species of this tree grows to an enormous size and is famous on this account, but this is...
-Cypress
This is a wood which is somewhat similar to white cedar in appearance, and which grows in quantities only in the southern states, where it may be seen in great swamps with the roots very often partial...
-Hemlock
There are two varieties of hemlock, one found in the northern states, from Maine to Minnesota, and along the Alle-ghenies southward to Georgia and Alabama, while the other is found in the west from Wa...
-Spruce
Another evergreen and cone-bearing tree which fur-nishes great quantities of lumber to the market every year is the spruce. There are three kinds of spruce, white, black, and red, of which the white s...
-Pine
This is the timber which has been used in building construction to a greater extent than any other except perhaps oak. It is peculiarly fitted for the purpose as it has grown in great abundance all ov...
-Fir
The fir tree yields timber very similar to spruce, and is often mixed in with spruce in the market. There are two kinds of fir trees, the western fir tree and the eastern fir tree, the first being kno...
-Tamarack
This is a wood which is very much like spruce in structure, but is hard and very strong, resembling hard pine in this respect. The tree grows in the northern part of the United States and Canada, both...
-Ash
Ash is a wood which is frequently employed for interior finishing in public buildings, such as school houses, churches, and so forth, and also in the cheaper classes of dwelling houses. It is one of t...
-Beech
This wood is not used to any great extent in Carpentry except in Europe, but is made up into tool handles, shoe lasts, and so forth, and is also used in wagon making and ship building. The tree grows ...
-Birch
Birch is a very handsome wood of a brown or red color and with a satiny luster. There are two kinds, the red birch and the white birch, but they are both taken from the same kind of tree, the differen...
-Butternut
Butternut is really a branch of the family of walnuts, and differs from them only slightly. The wood is used to some extent for inside finish, and is cheaper than most of the other hard woods. It is l...
-Cherry
Cherry is a wood which is frequently used as a finishing wood for the interior of dwellings and of cars and steamers, but, owing to the fact that it can be obtained only in narrow boards, it is most s...
-Elm
There are five species of elm trees in the United States, scattered throughout the eastern and central states. The trees are usually large and of rapid growth, and do not form forests. The timber is h...
-Gum
The wood of the gum tree has been used extensively for cabinet work, furniture, and interior finish. It is of fine texture and handsome appearance, heavy, fairly soft, yet strong. Its color is reddish...
-Maple
Almost all of the maple used in building work comes from the hard sugar maple, which is most abundant in the region of the Great Lakes, but which is also found from Maine to Minnesota and southward to...
-Oak
This is a wood which has probably been used more than any other kind in all classes of structures. In ancient times it was about the only wood in use both for the building of houses and for shipbuildi...
-Poplar
This wood is also known in the market as white wood, tulip wood, and sometimes as basswood. The poplar, the whitewood or tulip tree, and the basswood are, however, three distinct kinds of trees,...
-Sycamore
Sycamore is frequently used for finishing, and is a very handsome wood. It is heavy, hard, strong, of coarse texture, and is usually cross grained. It is hard to work, and shrinks, warps, and checks c...
-Walnut
There are a number of different kinds of walnut trees, of which only one or two, however, yield timber which is suitable for use in building construction. The best known trees are the English walnut,...
-Laurel
The tree of this name which is most extensively used in building work is the California laurel, which grows on the Pacific Coast and is seldom seen used in the eastern part of the country. The wood is...
-Osage Orange
This is a southern wood, growing in the Gulf States and seldom seen in the North. The tree is of medium size, bears fruit somewhat resembling an orange, and is protected by large thorns. The wood rang...
-Locust
The locust is a tree which yields wood valuable in construction on account of its great durability in exposed positions. The eastern tree is called the black locust, while the tree in the western stat...
-Holly
This wood is very highly prized for use in inlaid work, both on account of its beautiful even grain, and on account of its clear white color. The American tree grows in all the eastern states where it...
-Imported Timber
Besides the woods which grow in the United States, a number of others are brought in from foreign lands for use in the best grade of public buildings and private residences. The most popular of these ...
-General Characteristics Of Timber
In speaking of wood we are accustomed to use certain words to express our idea of its mechanical properties, or of its probable behavior under certain conditions. Thus we say that a wood is hard, or t...
-Steel Square
It is not only important that the workman should know the character and usefulness of the various materials, but it is also essential that he should be familiar with the steel square, which is the uni...
-Saws
Another very important and much used tool, wherever wood working is done, is the saw, and so much depends upon its careful manipulation and intelligent use that it will not be out of place to devote a...
-Rip Saw
This saw is designed for cutting along the direction of the grain of the wood, and from this comes its name, which suggests very clearly its purpose. Fig. 18 shows one of these saws, but the shape of ...
-Cross-Cut Saw
As has been already explained above, and as is clearly indicated by its name, this saw is intended for the cutting of wood across the grain at right angles to the direction of the fibers. It differs f...
-Hand Saw
There is a saw, which is much used for general work, which combines the qualities of the rip saw and the cross-cut saw. It is called the hand saw, and is a cross between the other two. It may be use...
-Back Saw
Fig. 23 shows a saw which is known as a back saw, probably because of the extra piece on the back which limits the depth to which the saw will cut. It is also called a tenon saw. There are a number ...
-Keyhole Saw
Fig. 25 shows a set of saw blades which are intended to be fastened in turn to the same handle and used for various purposes. These blades are very thin and can be used for cutting out small holes suc...
-Planes
Timber comes from the mills rough from the saw, and before it can be used for any finished work it must be prepared to receive paint or other kinds of finish. This preparation consists in a smoothing ...
-Jack Planes
The jack plane is used for the rougher work to give the preliminary smoothing after the lumber comes from the mill. It is bigger and, as a rule, heavier than the finishing planes, and is almost always...
-Trying And Smoothing Planes
The smoothing plane is usually much smaller than the jack plane, as it is not expected to take off so much material and there does not have to be so much leverage. In construction it is similar to the...
-Nails
In general, nails are of two kinds, namely, cut nails and wire nails, the difference between the two kinds being in the material and the method of manufacture. Cut Nails The cut nails, also called p...
-Screws
Screws are now used in building work to a much greater extent than was formerly the custom, largely on account of their decreased cost. They have the advantage over nails, as they do not split the woo...
-Laying Out
Having now considered the material and the most important of the tools with which the carpenter performs his work, we shall pass to a consideration of the work itself, and see how a building of wood c...
-Staking Out
When the approximate position of the structure has been decided upon, the next step is to stake it out, that is, the position of the corners of the building must be located and marked in some way, s...
-Carpentry Part II. Framing
After the building has been laid out, and the batter boards are in place, the next work which a carpenter is called upon to do is the framing. This consists in preparing a skeleton, as we may say, upo...
-Joints And Splices In Carpentry
Before beginning a description of the framing, it will be well to consider the methods employed in joining pieces of timber together. The number of different kinds of connections is really very small,...
-Butt Joint
This is the most simple of all the joints, and is made by merely placing the two pieces together with the end of one piece against the side of the other and nailing them firmly to each other, after bo...
-Mortise-And-Tenon Joint
From the modified butt joint it is only a step to the mortise-and-tenon joint, which is formed by cutting a hole called a mortise in one of the pieces of timber, to receive a projection called a ...
-Gained Joint
The joints which have so far been described are applicable only where the members are subjected to direct compression, as in the case of posts or braces, or in certain cases where direct tension is th...
-Tenon-And-Tusk Joint
A joint in very common use in such situations as those which have just been mentioned is a development of the gained joint which is called the tenon-and-tusk or the tusk-tenon joint. This joint is...
-Doable Tenon Joint
Fig. 50 shows a form of tenon joint called the double tenon joint, which is not very extensively used at the present time but which has some advantages. As may be readily seen, there are two small t...
-Halved Joint
A form of joint which may be used to connect two pieces which meet at a corner of a building, is shown in Fig. 51. Fig. 49. Bolted Tenon-and-Tusk Joint. This is known as the halved joint from t...
-Splices
As already explained, a splice is merely a joint between two pieces of timber which extend in the same direction, and is sometimes necessary because one long piece can not be conveniently or cheaply o...
-Splices For Compression
The simplest splices are those intended to resist compression alone, and of these the most simple is that shown in Fig. 54. This piece is said to be fished; the two parts are merely sawed off square...
-Splices For Tension
There are several common forms of splices for resisting direct tension. These differ from each other mainly in the amount of labor involved in making them. The simplest of them is shown in Fig. 59, an...
-Tension Splice With Fish Plates
The splices for tension which have so far been described have all been scarf joints, but there is a fished splice which is very commonly used for tension. This splice is shown in Fig. 63. The fish pla...
-Splices For Bending
It sometimes happens that a piece which is subjected to a bending stress must be spliced, and in this case the splice must be formed to suit the existing conditions. It is well known that in a timber ...
-Joints And Splices In Joinery
We have considered a few of the most important joints and splices used in the putting together of rough framing, and we will now take up some of the methods used in the joining together of finished wo...
-Miter Joints
Miters. A miter is a joint between two pieces which come together at a corner at an angle of ninety degrees with each other. Strictly such a joint can be called a mitered joint only when each piece is...
-Miter With Spline
A simple mitered joint may be made stronger by the introduction of a spline, which is inserted at the joint in a direction perpendicular to it. This is shown in Fig. 75. The spline used in this way is...
-Joint Mitered And Keyed
Another way of strengthening a mitered joint is by inserting what are known as keys into the pieces on the outside of the joint. These keys are thin slices of hard wood which are placed in slots pre...
-Dovetail Key
This method consists in the use of a strip of wood which is applied to the back of the several pieces to be held together and prevented from slipping by means of glue. The strip, however, is let into ...
-Dovetailing
There is another way of joining two pieces meeting at right angles, and it is better and stronger than any other but, on account of the work involved in the process of making the joint, is seldom used...
-Balloon Frame
In a balloon frame there are no braces or girts, and the intermediate studs FFF, Fig. 91, are carried straight up from the sill H to the plate K, with a light horizontal piece J, called a ribbon or ...
-Sill
The sill is the first part of the frame to be set in place. It rests directly on the underpinning and extends all around the building, being jointed at the corners and spliced where necessary; and sin...
-Corner Posts
After the sill is in place, the first floor is usually framed and roughly covered at once, to furnish a surface on which to work, and a sheltered place in the cellar for the storage of tools and mater...
-Girts
The girts are always made of the same width as the posts, being flush with the face of the post both outside and inside, and the depth is usually 8 inches, although sometimes a 6-inch timber may be us...
-Ledger Board
The heavy girts are used only in the braced frame. In the balloon frame, light pieces called ledger boards or ribbons are substituted for them. These are usually made about 7/8 inch thick and 6 or...
-Plate
The plate serves two purposes: First, to tie the studding together at the top and form a finish for the wall; and second, to furnish a support for the lower ends of the rafters. See Fig. 106. It is th...
-Braces
Braces are used as permanent parts of the structure only in braced frames, and serve to stiffen the wall, to keep the corners square and true, and to prevent the frame from being distorted by lateral ...
-Studding
When the sill, posts, girts, plates, and braces are in place, the only step that remains to complete the rough framing of the wall is the filling in of this framework with studding. The studding is of...
-Nailing Surfaces
Whenever a partition meets an outside wall, a stud wide enough to extend beyond the partition on both sides and to afford a solid nailing for the lathing must be inserted. A nailing surface must be pr...
-Intermediate Studding
The pieces which make up the largest part of the wall frame are the filling-in or intermediate studs. These, as the name implies, are used merely to fill up the frame made by the other heavier pie...
-Furring Walls
The partition walls are made 4 inches wide, the same as in the outer walls, except in the case of so-called furring partitions. These are built around chimney breasts and serve to conceal the brickw...
-Cap And Sole
All partition walls are finished at the top and bottom by horizontal pieces, called, respectively, the cap and the sole. The sole rests directly on the rough flooring whenever there is no partitio...
-Partition Bridging
In order to stiffen the partitions, short pieces of studding are cut in between the regular studding in such a way as to connect each piece with the pieces on each side of it. Thus, if one piece of st...
-Special Partitions
A partition in which there is a sliding door must be made double to provide a space into which the door may slide when it is open. This is done by building two walls far enough apart to allow the door...
-Shrinkage And Settlement
An important point which must be considered in connection with the framing of the walls and partitions, is the settlement due to the shrinkage of timber as it seasons after being put in place. Timber ...
-Floors
After the wall, the next important part of the house frame to be considered is the floors, which are usually framed while the wall is being put up and before it is finished. They must be made not only...
-Girders
Girders are generally needed only in the first floor, since in all the other floors the inner ends of the joists may be supported by the partitions of the floor below. They are usually of wood, though...
-Joists
Joists are the light pieces which make up the body of the floor frame and to which the flooring is nailed. They are almost always made of spruce, although other woods may be used, and may be found mor...
-Supports And Partitions
In certain parts of the floor frame it may be necessary to double the joists or place two of them close together in order to support some very heavy concentrated load. This is the case whenever a part...
-Headers And Trimmers
Another case where a girder may be necessary in a floor above the first, is where an opening is to be left in the floor for a chimney or for a stair well. The timbers on each side of such an opening a...
-Joist Connection
With Sill. Joists are also gained into the sill, as shown in Fig. 94, in which case a mortise is cut in the sill and a corresponding tenon is cut in the end of the joist. The mortise was illustrated...
-With Girders
The framing of the joists into the girders may be accomplished in several ways, according to the position of the girder. The placing of the girder is quite an important point. The top of the floor, on...
-With Brick Wall
When a joist or girder is supported at either end on a brick wall, there will either be a hole left in the wall to receive it, or the wall will be corbeled out to form a seat for the beam. If the beam...
-Porch Floors
A word might be appropriately inserted at this point in regard to floors of piazzas and porches. These may be supported either on brick piers or on wood posts, but preferably on piers, as these are mu...
-Carpentry Part III. The Roof
The framing of the roof is one of the most difficult problems with which the carpenter has to deal, not because of the number of complicated details, for these are few, but because of the many differe...
-Roof Characteristics
Styles Of Roofs The different varieties of roofs, from the simple pitch roof to the most complicated combination of hips and valleys, are developments of a few simple forms. Lean-To Roof The lean-t...
-Pitch Or Gable Roof
Next to the simple lean-to roof with a single sloping surface comes the ordinary pitch or gable roof, which has two sloping surfaces one on each side of the center line of the building, coming togethe...
-Hip Roof
The hip roof also slopes from all four walls toward the center, but not so steeply as does the mansard roof. It is usually brought to a point or a ridge at the top, as in Fig. 166, but sometimes it is...
-Valley Roof
In Fig. 168 is shown a very simple form of what is known as a valley roof. It is a combination of two simple pitch roofs which intersect each other at right angles. In the figure both ridges are shown...
-Rafters
In all roofs the pieces which make up the main body of the framework are called the rafters. They are for the roof what the joists are for the floor, and what the studs are for the wall. The rafters a...
-Pitch Of Roof
The pitch of a roof is the term used to indicate the slope of the sides of the roof surface or the inclination of these sides with respect to a horizontal plane or a surface absolutely flat and parall...
-Layout Of Roof Plan
The laying out of the roof plan for a building is a problem which requires some little thought and skill and it may be well to give a little space to a consideration of the best way in which to approa...
-Ridge
In the lean-to roof the rafters rest at the top against the wall of the building of which the ell, or porch, is a part; and the work of framing the roof consists simply in setting them up and securing...
-Interior Supports
In small roofs which have to cover only narrow buildings and in which the length of the rafters is short, there is no necessity for any interior support, and when the rafters have been cut to the corr...
-Double Gable Roof
A very interesting form of gable roof is that in which there is a double gable with a valley between, which forms the roof of an ell when the main roof is a simple pitch roof. This form of roof is sho...
-Gambrel Roof
A gambrel roof is framed in very much the same way as is a pitch roof or a hip roof. The slope of the roof, however, is broken at a point between the plate and the ridge. The part of the roof above th...
-Mansard Roof
A mansard roof is framed in very much the same way as is a gambrel roof, as may be seen in Fig. 187. Resting on the main wall plate A, we have a piece B which is inclined slightly inward, and which su...
-Dormer Windows
In Figs. 188 and 189 are shown what are known as dormer windows, this name being applied to all windows in the roofs of buildings, whatever may be their size or shape. The figures show two different k...
-Common Rafters
The ends of rafters are usually cut to fit accurately against one another and against the plates on which they rest. The cutting of these bevels is not at all difficult when the relation of the rafter...
-Valley And Hip Rafters
In Fig. 198 the rafters C C are valley rafters and, although the bevels for these rafters are not the same as the common rafter in either roof surface, yet the bevels depend upon the relation between ...
-Jack Rafters
Fig. 205 shows the plan of the roof in which there are, in addition to hip and valley rafters, sets of jack rafters. A B and B D are hip rafters, C E is a valley rafter, and the other rafters are comm...
-Curved Hip Rafters
A form of hip rafter which is sometimes a source of considerable trouble is one which occurs in a curved roof, such as an ogee roof over a bay window, or a curved tower roof. The slope of the curve to...
-Attic Partitions
It is often necessary to build partitions in the story directly beneath the roof, and such partitions must extend clear up to the under side of the rafters and be connected with them in some way. This...
-Special Framing
We have, in the preceding pages, considered the framing which enters into a building of light construction, such as an ordinary dwelling house, but there are certain classes of structures which call f...
-Battered Frames
Sometimes it is necessary to build a structure with the walls inclined inward, so that they approach each other at the top, and so that the top is smaller than the bottom. This is the case with the fr...
-Trussed Partitions
It is very often necessary to construct a partition in some story of a building above the first and in such a position that there can be no support beneath it such as another partition. In this case t...
-Inclined And Bowled Floors
In any large room which is to be used as a lecture hall the floor should not be perfectly level throughout, but should be so constructed as to be higher at the back end of the room than it is at the f...
-Heavy Beams And Girders
For ordinary framed buildings there will be no difficulty in obtaining timbers large enough for every purpose, but in large structures, or in any building where heavy loads must be carried, it is ofte...
-Balconies And Galleries
In churches and lecture halls it is almost always customary to have one or more balconies or galleries, extending sometimes around three sides of the main auditorium. but more often in the rear of th...
-Timber Trusses
In the discussion of roofs and roof framing which has already been given here, only those roofs have been considered which were of so short a span that they could easily be covered with a framework of...
-King-Post Truss
Fig. 237 shows what is known as a king-post truss. Its distinguishing feature is the member A called a kingpost, B are the purlins, and E are the rafters resting on them. As will be seen by a study of...
-Fink Truss
In Fig. 241 is shown a Fink truss, which is a very popular form, especially for trusses built of steel. It has neither king-post nor queen-posts, and the tie-beam A is of iron or steel instead of timb...
-Scissors Truss
The scissors truss is shown in Fig. 242. It has no tie-beam and, therefore, it will exert considerable thrust on the walls of the building, which thrust must be taken care of by buttresses built on th...
-Hammer Beam Truss
A very popular form of truss for use in churches is the hammer beam truss mentioned above. This is shown in Fig. 243. On the left is shown the framework for the truss, while on the right is shown the ...
-Truss Details
There are several methods of supporting the purlins on wood trusses, but the method illustrated in Fig. 244 is one of the best as well as the most frequently employed. A block of wood A is set up agai...
-Towers And Steeples
Towers are a very common feature in building construction, ranging in size from the small cupola used on barns to the high tapering spire which is the distinguishing mark of churches. They have roofs...
-Cupola
Fig. 248 shows a section through the frame of a simple cupola. It has posts A at each corner, which rest at the bottom on the sills B. The sills are supported on extra heavy collar beams C, which are ...
-Miscellaneous Towers
Other towers are framed in a manner similar to that described for a cupola. There is always a base or drum, with posts at the corners and with the walls filled in with studding, which supports a plate...
-Church Spire
Fig. 250 shows the method of framing a church spire, or other high tapering tower. The base of the drum N is square and is supported by the posts A, one at. each corner, which rest on the sills B. The...
-Domes
Timber domes have been built over many famous buildings, among which may be mentioned St. Paul's Cathedral at London, and the Hotel Des Invalides at Paris. While these structures are domical in shape ...
-Pendentives
In the preceding paragraphs we have considered the subject of domical roofs covering buildings of circular plan, which is the simplest possible case, but unfortunately not the most usual one. It very ...
-Niches
Niches are of common occurrence in building work, especially in churches, halls, and other important structures. Sometimes they are simply recesses in the wall with straight corners and a square head,...
-Vaults And Groins
Although vaulted roofs are an outgrowth of masonry construction, and are almost always built of brick or stone, they are occasionally built of timber, and in any case a timber centering must be built ...
-Carpentry. Part IV. Exterior And Interior Finish
In the preceding pages we have considered the most important of the methods in use for the construction of the rough framework of buildings. We will now take up the general subject of finish, both out...
-Sheathing
The first operation in connection with the application of the finish is that of covering the framework with sheathing, which should be about 1 inch in thickness, and for the best work, dressed on one ...
-Building Paper
Building or sheathing paper is now placed over the sheathing to keep out the weather and to cover more completely the joints in the boarding. This paper must be tough and strong as well as waterproof,...
-Water Table
Starting at the bottom of a wood structure, at the point where the masonry foundation wall stops and the timber framework begins, the first part of the outside finish which meets the eye is the water ...
-Clapboards For Wall Covering
The clapboards used for covering walls are usually of white pine or spruce, though they are sometimes made from a cheaper timber such as hemlock or fir. They are about 5 or 6 inches wide and about 4 f...
-Siding
The only difference between common siding and clapboards is in the length of the pieces, the siding coming in lengths of from 6 to 16 feet, while the clapboards are in short lengths as explained above...
-Corner Boards
It is customary, whenever the walls of a building are covered with clapboards, to make a special finish at the corners. This finish usually takes the form of two boards, one about 5 inches wide, the o...
-Shingles
Instead of clapboards, shingles may be used for covering the walls of a building, though this method is more expensive than the other. The advantages are in the appearance of the work, the variety of ...
-Belt Courses
It is often desirable, for the sake of effect or for the purpose of protecting the lower part of the walls of a building, to arrange a horizontal projecting band or course, as it is called, which wi...
-Finish At The Eaves
The point, or rather the line, in which the sloping roof meets the vertical wall is called the eaves and this point must always be finished in some way. This finish, however, may be varied to almost...
-Gutters
Practical considerations require that at the eaves some kind of a gutter must be provided, to catch the water which falls on the roof and streams off from it. This gutter, of whatever kind, must be su...
-Open Cornice
The most simple way of supporting the gutter is to let the main rafters of the roof framing extend out over the wall as far as necessary and cut a rabbet in the end of each of them into which the gutt...
-Boxed Cornice
A better finished form of cornice is shown in Fig. 283. Here an extra piece P is placed just above the gutter so as to cover the spaces between the rafters, and the entire under side of the rafters ou...
-False Rafter Construction
It is often desirable, for the sake of architectural effect, to break the surface of the roof just above the eave line, and in order to do this it is necessary to make use of small pieces of rafters, ...
-Concealed Gutters
Another common form of eave provides a concealed gutter. In this construction the ceiling joists are extended beyond the outside walls and the rafters are cut to set over the plate. The cornice and gu...
-Finish For Brick Walls
Any of the forms of eave finish described above may be used equally well in cases where the wall is of brick instead of wood. In this case a wood plate is placed on top of the brick wall and the rafte...
-Ridge Finish
At the ridge of a roof where the two slopes meet there must be some special provision made for the proper finish of the roof covering, something for the shingling or slating to finish on as well as so...
-Skylight Openings
It is sometimes necessary to make an opening in a roof surface for the admission of light to the rooms under the roof. This is usually done by the formation of what is known as a dormer window, the me...
-Dormer Window
When it is desired to obtain the admission of light to the space under the roof surface in a way more elaborate and satisfactory than is possible with a simple skylight such as has just been described...
-Gambrel Roof Finish
The kind of roof known as a gambrel roof has already been described so far as the framing of the roof is concerned, but at the point where the steeper part of the roof meets the flatter part, there ...
-Gable Finish
We have seen that when a dormer window is designed with two sloping roof surfaces, there is thus formed on the front of the dormer a triangular-shaped surface which must be decorated in some way and w...
-Verge Boards
It is a common practice to use what are called verge boards for the finish of the gable ends of buildings. These are a kind of ornamental rafter which follows up the rake of the roof, not along the ...
-Outside Finish Around Windows
Wherever there is an opening in the wall of a wood building, such as a window or a door, the outside finish, consisting of shingling, clapboarding, or other covering, has to be cut through, and if no ...
-Pulley Stile
In Fig. 307 we have seen that the piece D, called the pulley stile, forms one side of the box where the weights for the window sashes are concealed, and that it is fastened to the outside architrave b...
-Double-Hung Sash
In Fig. 314 is shown a large-size section through the side or stile of an ordinary window sash, with some of the dimensions given. The same section is ordinarily used for the top rail of the sash, as ...
-Upper And Lower Sash
Double-hung sashes are divided into two parts, one called the upper sash and the other the lower sash, which are so arranged as to slide by each other. They meet at the center of the window openin...
-Muntins
When there are more than two lights in a window opening, the sashes must be subdivided and the panes of glass made smaller, and this subdivision is accomplished by means of pieces called muntins whi...
-Casement Sash And Frames
The frames and the sash before described, known as double-hung sash or English sash with box frames, are those most commonly employed in the United States and Canada, but there is another kind of ...
-Transoms
It is often desirable to separate the lights of a window, whether it is a double-hung window or one of the casement type, by means of a horizontal division called a transom. In this case the additio...
-Mullions
In Fig. 333 is shown a double-hung window which is in two parts with a mullion between them. The mullion is shown at A. The window shown also has two transom sashes with a mullion between the sashes B...
-Windows In Brick Walls
Windows in brick or other masonry walls are in every respect similar to windows in frame walls, the only difference being in the arrangement of the jambs, heads, and sills. Fig. 337 shows a section t...
-Outside Door Frames
Outside doors are usually made heavier and thicker than inside doors, and, therefore, the frames for them must be different from the frames for inside doors even in frame buildings, and in buildings o...
-Doors
The construction of doors is essentially the same, whether they are to be used as outside or as inside doors, the only difference being in the thickness of the door and in the finishing of it. The mos...
-Base Or Skirting
The walls and ceilings of rooms in which there is no attempt made to give an ornamental treatment in woodwork are ordinarily finished in plaster. Even in the cheapest work, however, there should be so...
-Wainscoting
Whenever it is not desirable to carry the plastering down to the floor, for any reason, it is customary to make use of a wainscot, which is a covering of woodwork about 3 or 4 feet high, which either ...
-Wood Ceiling Beams
It is often necessary or desirable to have beams showing in the ceiling of certain rooms, and these beams may be either true or false, that is, they may be either an ornamental covering for beams whic...
-Staircase Finish
The subject of stair building, including the finishing of staircases, is completely covered in the article entitled Stair Building. ALPHA DELTA PHI CHAPTER HOUSE AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N...
-Stair-Building
Introductory In the following instructions in the art of Stair-building, it is the intention to adhere closely to the practical phases of the subject, and to present only such matter as will directly...
-String-Board
This is the board forming the side of the stairway, connecting with, and supporting the ends of the steps. Where the steps are housed, or grooved into the board, it is known by the term housed string;...
-Strings
There are two main kinds of stair strings - wall strings and cut strings. These are divided, again, under other names, as housed strings, notched strings, staved strings, and rough strings. Wall strin...
-Setting Out Stairs
In setting out stairs, the first thing to do is to ascertain the locations of the first and last risers, with the height of the story wherein the stair is to be placed. These points should be marked o...
-Pitch-Board
It will now be in order to describe a pitch-board and the manner of using it; no stairs can be properly built without the use of a pitch-board in some form or other. Properly speaking, a pitch-board, ...
-Pitch-Board. Continued
In some closed stairs in which there is a housed string between the newels, the string is double-tenoned into the shanks of both newels, as shown in Fig. 20. The string in this example is made 12 3/4 ...
-Well-Hole
Before proceeding to describe and illustrate neweled stairs, it will be proper to say something about the well-hole, or the opening through the floors, through which the traveler on the stairs ascends...
-Laying Out Stairs
In order to afford the student a clear idea of what is meant by laying out on the floor, an example of a simple close-string stair is given. In Fig. 33, the letter F shows the floor line; L is the lan...
-Laying Out Stairs. Continued
BUILDING FOR THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. Pond and Pond, Architects, Chicago Exterior of Brick in Two Colors with Stone Trimmings and Tile Roof. COUNTRY HOUSE AT B...
-Bullnose Tread
No other stair, perhaps, looks so well at the starting point as one having a bulinose step. In Fig. 44 are shown a plan and elevation of a flight of stairs having a bullnose tread. The method of obtai...
-Open-Newel Stairs
Before leaving the subject of straight and dog-legged stairs, the student should be made familiar with at least one example of an open-newel stair. As the same principles of construction govern all st...
-Stairs With Curved Turns
Sufficient examples of stairs having angles of greater or less degree at the turn or change of direction, to FIRST Story Plan FIRST-STORY PLAN OF COUNTRY HOUSE AT BETHLEHEM, N. H. The Living Room...
-Stairs With Curved Turns. Continued
Fig. 60. Methods of Building Up Strings. In Fig. 62 is shown a wreath-piece or curved portion of the outside string rising around the cylinder at the half-space. This is formed by reducing a short pi...
-Types Of Stairs In Common Use
In order to make the student familiar with types of stairs in general use at the present day, plans of a few of those most likely to be met with will now be given. Fig. 72 is a plan of a straight sta...
-Geometrical Stairways And Handrailing
The term geometrical is applied to stairways having any kind of curve for a plan. The rails over the steps are made continuous from one story to another. The resulting winding or twisting pieces are c...
-Tangent System
The tangent system of handrailing takes its name from the use made of the tangents for this purpose. In Fig. 86, it is shown that the joints connecting the central line of rail with the plan rails w ...
-Cost Of House
Mason Work........ $ 625.00 Carpentry........ 2,684 00 Tinning......... 36.00 Plumbing........ 380 00 Plastering.............. 253.00...
-Cost Of House. Part 2
Fig. 98. Diagram of Tangents and Face-Mould for Stair with Well-Hole at Upper Landing. Fig. 96 shows how to find the angle between the tangents of the face-mould for the bottom wreath, which, as s...
-Cost Of House. Part 3
Fig. 102. Bottom Steps with Obtuse-Angle Plan. Fig. 103. Developing Face Mould, Obtuse-Angle Plan. Fig. 104. Cutting Wreath from Plank. In all the preceding examples, the tangents on the p...
-Bevels To Square The Wreaths
The next process in the construction of a wreath that the handrailer will be called upon to perform, is to find the bevels that will, by being applied to each end of it, give the correct angle to squa...
-Bevels To Square The Wreaths. Continued
Fig. 117. Upper Tangent Inclined, Lower Tangent Level, Over Acute-Angle Plan. Fourth Case In Fig. 113 is shown how to find the bevels for a wreath when the upper tangent inclines less than the bo...
-How To Put The Curves On The Face-Mould
It has been shown how to find the angle between the tangents of the face-mould, and that the angle is for the purpose of squaring the joints at the ends of the wreath. In Fig. 119 is shown how to lay ...
-Arrangement Of Risers In And Around Well-Hole
An important matter in wreath construction is to have a knowledge of how to arrange the risers in and around a well-hole. A great deal of labor and material is saved through it; also a far better appe...
-The Steel Square Introductory
The Standard Steel Square has a blade 24 inches long and 2 inches wide, and a tongue from 14 to 18 inches long and 1 1/2 inches wide. The blade is at right angles to the tongue. The face of the squa...
-The Steel Square As Applied In Roof Framing
Roof framing at present is as simple as it possibly can be, so that any attempt at a new method would be superfluous. There may, however, be a certain way of presenting the subject that will carry wit...
-Heel Cut Of Common Rafter
In Fig. 16 is also shown a method to lay out the heel cut of a common rafter. The square is shown applied with 12 on blade and 9 on tongue; and from where the 12 on the square intersects the edge of t...
-Hips
Three of the hips are shown in Fig. 14 to extend from the plate to the ridge-pole; they are marked in the figure as 1, 2, and 3 respectively, and are shown in plan to be diagonals of a square measurin...
-Hips. Part 2
Fig. 24. Steel Square Applied to Finding Bevel for Fitting Top of Hip or Valley to Ridge. In like manner the thickness of the valley above the plate is found; but as the valley as shown in the pla...
-Hips. Part 3
Fig. 30. Method of Finding Bevels for All Timbers in Roofs of Equal Pitch. When jacks are placed between hips and valleys as shown at 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., in Fig. 14, a better method of treatment is ...
-Hips. Part 4
Fig. 36. Laying Out Timbers of Roof with Two Unequal Pitches. With this knowledge of what figures to use, and why they are used, it will be an easy matter for anyone to lay out all rafters for equ...
-Practical Carpentry Test Questions
In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of the various methods and principles. Accompanying these are exam...
-On The Subject Of Stair-Building
1. Define staircase and stairway. 2. What is meant by the rise and run of a stairway? How measured ? 3. Define tread and riser. 4. How do treads and risers compare as to number? Why? 5. What is a ...
-On The Subject Of The Steel Square
1. On what part of the square will you find the octagon scale? Describe its use. 2. On what part of the square will you find the brace rule? Describe its use. 3. On what part of the square would you...
-Foreword Vol3
PLAN FOR SAINT BARNABAS CHURCH, BERLIN, N. H. Edmund Q. Sylvester, Architect, Boston, Mass. For Exterior View, Reproduced in Color, See Frontispiece in this Volume. SANGER MONUMENT IN G...
-Strength Of Materials. Part I. Simple Stress
I. Stress. When forces are applied to a body they tend in a greater or less degree to break it. Preventing or tending to prevent the rupture, there arise, generally, forces between every two adjacent ...
-Strength Of Materials. Part I. Simple Stress. Part 2
To find the value of a unit-deformation: Divide the whole deformation by the length over which it is distributed. Thus, if D denotes the value of a deformation, I the length, s the unit-deformation, t...
-Strength Of Materials. Part I. Simple Stress. Part 3
Nearly all the information revealed by such a test can be well represented in a diagram called a stress-deformation diagram. It is made as follows: Lay off the values of the unit-deformation (fourth c...
-Strength Of Materials Under Simple Stress
13. Materials in Tension. Practically the only materials used extensively under tension are timber, wrought iron and steel, and to some extent cast iron. 14. Timber. A successful tension test of wood...
-Strength Of Materials Under Simple Stress. Continued
21. Steel. The hard steels have the highest compressive strength; there is a recorded value of nearly 400,000 pounds per square inch, but 150,000 is probably a fair average. The elastic limit in comp...
-Reactions Of Supports
28. Moment of a Force. By moment of a force with respect to a point is meant its tendency to produce rotation about that point. Evidently the tendency depends on the magnitude of the force and on the ...
-Reactions Of Supports. Continued
Fig. 10. R1 x 10 - 1,000 X 9 - 2,000 X 4 - 3,000 X 2 = 0. The first equation reduces to 10 R2 = 1,000+12,000 + 24,000 = 37,000; or R2= 3,700 pounds. The second equation reduces to 10 R1 = 9,000+...
-External Shear And Bending Moment
On almost every cross-section of a loaded beam there are three kinds of stress, namely tension, compression and shear. The first two are often called fibre stresses because they act along the real fib...
-External Shear And Bending Moment. Part 2
Ans. V1 = V2' -2,100 pounds, V2 = V3 V4 = v20 V6 V7 V8 = + 1,900, V8 = ...
-External Shear And Bending Moment. Part 3
39. Maximum Shear. It is sometimes desirable to know the greatest or maximum value of the shear in a given case. This value can always be found with certainty by constructing the shear diagram, from w...
-External Shear And Bending Moment. Part 4
3. Compute the values of the bending moment in example 1, taking into account the weight of the beam, 400 pounds. (The right and left reactions are respectively 3,900 and 2,500 pounds; see example 3, ...
-External Shear And Bending Moment. Part 5
5. Figs. a, cases 3 and 4, page 55, represent simple beams on end supports, the first bearing a middle load P, and the other a uniform load W. Figs. b are the corresponding moment diagrams. Take P and...
-Center Of Gravity And Moment Of Inertia
It will be shown later that the strength of a beam depends partly on the form of its cross-section. The following discussion relates principally to cross-sections of beams, and the results reached (li...
-Center Of Gravity And Moment Of Inertia. Part 2
Fig. 25. Evidently the center of gravity of each channel section is 6 inches, and that of the plate section is 12 inches, from the bottom. Let c denote the distance of the center of gravity of t...
-Center Of Gravity And Moment Of Inertia. Part 3
Fig, 23. BUILDING FOR JOHN H. WHITTEMORE, 1223 MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO, ILL. Dean & Dean, Architects, Chicago, 111. Mill Construction with Soft Brick Walls and Piers; Floors, Mill Construction...
-Center Of Gravity And Moment Of Inertia. Part 4
56. Kinds of Loads Considered. The loads that are applied to a horizontal beam are usually vertical, but sometimes forces are applied otherwise than at right angles to beams. Forces acting on beams...
-Center Of Gravity And Moment Of Inertia. Part 5
2. vertical 3. moments of all the forces with respect to any point equals zero. To satisfy condition 1, since the tension and compression are the only horizontal forces, the ...
-Strength Of Materials, Part II. Strength Of Beams - (Concluded)
62. First Beam Formula. As shown in the preceding article, the resisting and bending moments for any section of a beam are equal; hence SI/c = M, (6) all the symbols referring to the same section. Th...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams
1. A beam 12 feet long and 6 X 12 inches in cross-section rests on end supports, and sustains a load of 3,000 pounds in the middle. Compute the greatest tensile and compressive unit-stresses in the be...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams. Part 2
4. A cast-iron built-in cantilever beam projects 8 feet from the wall. Its cross-section is represented in Fig. 40, and the moment of inertia with respect to the neutral axis is 50 inches4; the workin...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams. Part 3
Hence I/C = 105,600/16,000 = 6.6 inches3. That is, an I-beam is needed whose section modulus is a little larger than 6.6, to provide strength for its own weight. To select a size, we need a descript...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams. Part 4
1. In wooden beams (rectangular or square in cross-section), the greatest unit-shearing stress in a section is 50 per cent larger than the average value Ss. 2. In I-beams, and in others with a thin v...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams. Part 5
If the working strength in shear is taken equal to one-wentieth the working fibre strength, then it can be shown that, 1. For a beam on end supports loaded in the middle, the safe load depends on the...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams. Part 6
(1) The flexural compressive unit-stress on the upper fibre is greater than the direct unit-stress; that is, S1 is greater than S0. The resultant stress on the upper fibre is Sc = S1 = S0 (compressiv...
-Examples For Practice Strength Of Beams. Part 7
E is a number depending on the stiffness of the material, the average values of which are, for timber, 1,500,000; and for structural steel 30,000,000.* S1= Mc1/ I + Pl2/ 10E, and S2 = Mc2/I + Pl2/10E...
-Strength Of Columns
A stick of timber, a bar of iron, etc., when used to sustain end loads which act lengthwise of the pieces, are called columns, posts, or struts if they are so long that they would bend before breaking...
-Strength Of Columns. Part 2
83. Rankine's Column Formula. When a perfectly straight column is centrally loaded, then, if the column does not bend and if it is homogeneous, the stress on every cross-section is a uniform compressi...
-Strength Of Columns. Part 3
(1) For bending in the first plane, the strength of the column is to be computed from the formula for a pin-ended column. Hence, for this case, r2 = 386 -4- 23.5 = 16; and the breaking load is P= -(5...
-Strength Of Columns. Part 4
The line AB, Fig. 50, represents Johnson's straight-line formula; and BC, Euler's formula. It will be noticed that the two lines are tangent; the point of tangency corresponds to the limiting value ...
-Strength Of Columns. Part 5
Examples. 1. A 40-pound 10-inch steel I-beam column 8 feet long sustains a load of 100,000 pounds, and its ends are flat. Compute its factor of safety according to the methods of this article. The f...
-Strength Of Shafts
A shaft is a part of a machine or system of machines, and is used to transmit power by virtue of its torsional strength, or resistance to twisting. Shafts are almost always made of metal and are usual...
-Stiffness Of Rods, Beams, And Shafts
The preceding discussions have related to the strength of materials. We shall now consider principally the elongation of rods, deflection of beams, and twist of shafts. FIRST-FLOOR PLAN OF RESIDEN...
-Stiffness Of Rods, Beams, And Shafts. Continued
D = 0.0000065 X 10 X l = 0.000065 l. Now, since the rod could not shorten, it has a greater than normal length at the new temperature; that is, the fall in temperature has produced an effect equivale...
-Riveted Joints
100. Kinds of Joints. A lap joint is one in which the plates or bars joined overlap each other, as in Fig. 58, a. A butt joint is one in which the plates or bars that are joined butt against each othe...
-Statics
This subject, called Statics, is a branch of Mechanics. It deals with principles relating especially to forces which act upon bodies at rest, and with their useful applications. There are two quite d...
-I. Preliminary
1. Force. The student, no doubt, has a reasonably clear idea as to what is meant by force, yet it may be well to repeat here a few definitions relative to it. By force is meant simply a push or pull. ...
-II. Concurrent Forces; Composition And Resolution
9. Graphical Composition of Two Concurrent Forces. If two forces are represented in magnitude and direction by AB and BC {Fig. 5), the magnitude and direction of their resultant is represented by AC. ...
-II. Concurrent Forces; Composition And Resolution. Part 2
A number of force polygons can be drawn for any system of forces, no two alike. Thus A1 Bi C1 D1 and A2 B2 C2 D2 are other force polygons for the same three forces, 80, 90, and 100 pounds. Notice that...
-II. Concurrent Forces; Composition And Resolution. Part 3
Examples For Practice 1. Resolve the 160-pound force of Fig. 5 into components which act in AF and AE. Ans. The first component equals 238 pounds, and its sense is from A to F; the secon...
-III. Concurrent Forces In Equilibrium
15. Condition of Equilibrium Defined. By condition of equilibrium of a system of forces is meant a relation which they must fulfill in order that they may be in equilibrium or a relation which they fu...
-III. Concurrent Forces In Equilibrium. Continued
If the components acting in the same direction along either of the two lines be given the plus sign and those acting in the other direction, the negative sign, then it follows from the foregoing that ...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints."
18. Trusses. A truss is a frame work used principally to support loads as in roofs and bridges. Fig. 16, 25, 26 and 27 represent several forms of trusses. The separate bars or rods, 12, 23, etc. (Fig....
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 2
14 X sin 60 = 12.12 feet. The tangent of the angle equals 12.12/21 = 0.577, and hence the angle equals 30 degrees. According to Art. 19, 32 pounds per square foot is the proper value of the wind pre...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 3
Fig. 18. of these force polygons is preferable for reasons explained later. Since is in compression, it exerts a push (9,000 pounds) on joint (2) as represented in Fig. 18 (a), and sinceis in tens...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 4
Member being in tension, pulls down on joint (3) as shown in Fig. 20 (d). The other forces acting on that joint are the load 1,800 pounds, the push 1,875 pounds, the pull 600 pounds, and the force ex...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 5
* As already stated, methods for determining reactions are explained in Art. 37; for the present the values of the reactions in any example will be given. We are now ready to draw polygons for the jo...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 6
Examples. 1. It is required to construct a stress diagram for the truss represented in Fig. 24 supported at its ends and sustaining three loads of 2,000 pounds as shown. Evidently the reactions equal ...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 7
Fig. 28. Examples. 1. It is required to analyze the truss of Fig. 16 for wind pressure, the distance between trusses being 14 feet. The apex loads for this case are computed in Example 3, Page 26...
-IV. Analysis Of Trus5es; "Method Of Joints.". Part 8
STRESS RECORD. Member. Stress, Wind Left. Stress, Wind Right. af - 8,850 - 6,300 fe + 12,700 _ 2,000 bg ...
-V. Composition Of Non-Concurrent Forces
30. Graphical Composition. As in composition of concurrent systems, we first compound any two of the forces by means of the Triangle Law (Art. 9), then compound the resultant of these two forces with ...
-V. Composition Of Non-Concurrent Forces. Continued
Examples For Practice 1. Determine the resultant of the 50-, 70-, SO- and 120-pound forces of Fig. 5. Ans. 260 pounds acting upwards 1.8 and 0.1 feet to the right of A and D respectively....
-VI. Equilibrium Of Non-Concurrent Forces
35. Conditions of Equilibrium of Non=Concurrent Forces Not Parallel may be stated in various ways; let us consider four. First: 1. The algebraic, sums of the components of the forces along each of tw...
-VI. Equilibrium Of Non-Concurrent Forces. Continued
When the loads are not all vertical, the loads and the reactions constitute a non-concurrent non-parallel system and any one of the sets of conditions of equilibrium stated in Art. 35 may be used for...
-VII. Analysis Of Trusses (Continued); Method Of Sections
38. Forces in Tension and Compression Members. As explained in Strength of Materials if a member is subjected to forces, any two adjacent parts of it exert forces upon each other which hold the part...
-VII. Analysis Of Trusses (Continued); Method Of Sections. Part 2
Hence, assuming F1' to be a pull, -(F1 X 7)+ (3,000 X 7)+ (3,000 X 17.5) +(1,500 X 28) - (6,000 X 28) = 0, or F1 =[ (3,000 X 7)+ (3,000 X 17.5) +(1,500 X 28) -(6,000 X 28)] / 7 = - 7,500 The min...
-VII. Analysis Of Trusses (Continued); Method Of Sections. Part 3
At each of the next joints (4 and 5), there are three unknown forces, and the polygon for neither joint can be drawn. We might draw the polygons for the joints on the right side corresponding to 1, 2,...
-VII. Analysis Of Trusses (Continued); Method Of Sections. Part 4
We may now resume the construction of the polygons for the joints on the left side. At joint 4, we know the forces in the members kn and kr hence there are only two unknown forces there. The polygon f...
-VII. Analysis Of Trusses (Continued); Method Of Sections. Part 5
Evidently the loads on parts and also equal 1,920 pounds each; hence the apex loads at joints 1 and 5 equal 960 pounds and at joints 2, 3 and 4, 1,920 pounds. The wind load must be computed for each ...
-Roof Trusses
1. Classes of Roof Trusses. Roof trusses may be divided into three classes according to the shape of their upper chord. These three classes are: (1) Triangular roof trusses; (2) Crescent roof trusse...
-Roof Trusses. Continued
Fig. 7. Theoretical Determination of Normal Component. CLYBOURNE STATION OF THE CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY. Frost & Granger, Architects, Chicago, 111. Built in 1900. For Interior, ...
-Roof Coverings
5. The roof is covered with some material which will protect the interior of the building from the action of the elements. This covering may consist of any one or more of the materials which, together...
-Roof Coverings. Part 2
Fig. 13. Showing How Steel Roofing is Fastened to Purlins. For further information regarding the method of lapping and the width covered, see Fig. 12. Corrugated steel is fastened either directly...
-Roof Coverings. Part 3
Non=Condensing Roofing. In cases where a metal, slate, or tile roof is used without sheathing, moisture is liable to condense upon the under side and drip on the floor beneath. This can be prevented b...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #1
1. Compute the roof rafters if the purlins are spaced 10 feet apart, the roof covering weighs 10 pounds, the sheathing 4 pounds, and the snow load per square foot of roof surface 12 pounds. This prob...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2
1. Design the rafters when the total weight of the snow and roof covering is 30 pounds per square foot, and the purlins are spaced 15 feet apart. Use 1 000 pounds per square inch as the allowable unit...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 2
The best method of determining the economical spacing is either to make a comparative design or to consult the back volumes of The Engineering Record, Engineering News, or some other good engineering ...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 3
In cases where the roof truss is placed on steel columns and is connected with the column by a knee-brace at the first joint (see Fig. 39), stresses caused by the overturning action of the wind take p...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 4
The wind blowing on one side of the building causes a compressive stress in the column on the leeward side (the side opposite that on which the wind blows) and a tensile stress in the column on the wi...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 5
E1 = H2 n/2m E2 = H1 n/2 - W1 (n/4 - m/2 ) /m Bending moment at b = Mb, = Hl n/2 - W1 (n/4 - m/2) Bending moment at b' Mb= H2- n/2. For the truss-bent of Fig. 45, when the columns are fixed at the...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 6
If a truss rests on masonry walls, three methods of making the details at L0 are in common use. These are shown in Figs. 55, 56, and 57. The detail shown in Fig. 55 is the most commonly used; but its ...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 7
When the roof truss rests on steel columns which are composed of latticed angles, the connections may be made as shown in Figs. 60 and 61. Fig. 60 is preferable, because it gives a more rigid connecti...
-Examples For Practice Roof Coverings #2. Part 8
Fig. 73. Paradigm Method of Glazing. An extended set of specifications is not required for the design of ordinary roof trusses. In addition to the information regarding the weight of trusses,...
-Design Of A Riveted Roof Truss
14. Let it be required to design a Fink roof truss of 64 feet span and 1/4 pitch, the distance between trusses being 16 feet. The roof covering is taken as 12 pounds per square foot of roof surface, a...
-Design Of A Riveted Roof Truss. Part 2
For Member L2, L5: The required net area is 24 950 15 000 = 1.67 square inches. From Carnegie Handbook, p. 115, two angles 2 by 2 by -inch give a gross area of 2 X 1.06 = 2.12 square inches; and t...
-Design Of A Riveted Roof Truss. Part 3
For Exteriors, See Page 250. Table XI. Radii Of Gyration Of Angles Placed Back To Back Equal Legs Size (Inches) T1 r2 2 X 2 X 3/16 0.93 0.98...
-Design Of A Riveted Roof Truss. Part 4
1 1 150 3 130 = 4 shop rivets. Each End of L1 U2 and U2 L3: Rivets -inch. Plate -inch. 6 240 3 070 = 2 shop rivets. Each End of Ul L1 and U3 L3: Rivets -inch. Plate -inch. 5 580 ...
-Design Of A Riveted Roof Truss. Part 5
Connections to the Posts. If the truss rests upon posts at the end, sufficient rivets must be driven through the posts and the end connection plates to take up the end reaction, which (see page 38) is...
-Mill Building
18. Definitions and Description. A mill building consists of a roof supported either on steel columns, on steel columns built in also connected at certain distances throughout their height by horizont...
-Mill Building. Part 2
Corrugated steel may be fastened to the girts by barbed roofing nails in case the girts are wood, or by clinch nails in case the girts are angles, or by clips fastened with rivets or 3/16-inch stove b...
-Mill Building. Part 3
Fig. 91. Detail of Vertical Hoist Door. Fig. 92. Detail of Rolling Door of Corrugated Steel. Courtesy of Kinnear Mfg. Co., Columbus, Ohio. Fig. 93. Cross-Sections of Columns. In order to p...
-Mill Building. Part 4
Fig. 101. Detail of Knee-Brace and Connections. 25. Runway Girders. The runway girders extend from column to column on each side of the bay in which the girder runs. An inspection of the figures o...
-Mill Building. Part 5
Fig. 114. Position of Crane Truck for Maximum Reaction on Column. Fig. 115. Position of Crane Truck for Maximum Shear at any Section. The maximum shear in the runway girder will occur when the cr...
-Mill Building. Part 6
In case there are two gauge lines on the angle, then the distance hg is the distance between centers of these gauge lines (see Fig, 119). Table IX, p. 46, gives the gauge lines for different lengt...
-Mill Building. Part 7
28. Gable Details. The gable is the end of the roof at that end of the building which is parallel to the roof trusses. Since this extends beyond the plane of the side of the building, some method must...
-Hardware
Introductory. Hardware in building is generally considered to embrace all metallic appliances of a mechanical nature. For example nails, screws binding the various parts together, hinges permitting mo...
-Nails And Screws
These embrace the class of most uninteresting hardware - so commonplace as hardly to demand attention; but they play, after all, a large part in modern construction, and have had the greatest influenc...
-Hinges And Butts
This group of hardware is the most important on the list, for if the hinge is out of order or lacking, the door is absolutely useless. It matters little if the latch, lock, or bolt be missing; some si...
-Hinges And Butts. Part 2
Fig. 13. Ornamental Cast-Iron Butt, Loose-Pin Type. Fig. 14. Common Five-Knuckled Loose-Pin Butt. Fig. 15. Steel Washer for Butt. Fig. 16. Ball Bearings for Butt. The protection agains...
-Hinges And Butts. Part 3
Fig. 22. Gravity Blind Hinge. In selecting double-acting butts, always get a large size capable of doing the work easily, as the jar on a light butt as the door passes the closed point will quickl...
-Hinges And Butts. Part 4
As all the parts except the face-plate are hidden in the mortise, there is no use in ornamental work. The exposed face is usually plain brass or bronze; the case is generally cast iron or pressed stee...
-Hinges And Butts. Part 5
It is often desired that locks be master-keyed - that is, so constructed that each lock will be operated by a key differing from any other, but also so made that one master key can open all, as in the...
-Knobs And Escutcheons
These are pans in which the vanity of the owner can be - and often is - displayed. The escutcheon is the plate through which the key-hole is cut. It is usually combined with that on which the knob is ...
-Sash Hardware
In all the range of house hardware, there is none so unsatisfactory as that used in connection with window-sashes. This is not altogether the fault of the hardware, as the customs regulating the manuf...
-Miscellaneous Hardware
Bolts. The bolt is one of the oldest and simplest contrivances for securing different parts in a desired position, and is still a most necessary item of hardware. Here, weight of metal counts for as m...
-Miscellaneous Hardware. Continued
Fig. 59. Door-Holder Actuated by Spring Operated by Foot. Fig. 60. Another Type of Door-Holder. Neither kick plates nor push plates should be used except where there is a necessity therefor; t...
-Finishes Of Hardware
It is necessary that hardware should have some special finish; and, as in the case of wood or marble or any other fine material, the object of the better finishes is to bring out and intensify the qua...
-Selecting And Buying Hardware
There is no part of the building process in which the necessity for absolute system is greater than in selecting and making out a bill of Hardware. To illustrate this point, let us take the example of...
-Selecting And Buying Hardware. Continued
Fig. 69. First-Floor Plan, with Hardware Items Indicated. The third step consists in placing on the drawings, under each door, window, or miscellaneous item, the designating numbers of the hardwar...
-Catalogues
It is entirely outside of the province of this paper to attempt to catalogue the hardware now made. There is no line of manufacture in which the details are more intricate, and few retail or even whol...
-Practical Strength Of Materials Test Questions
In the next sections of this book numerous illustrative examples are given in detail in order to show the application of the various methods and principles. Accompanying these are samples for practice...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Graphical Statics
1. Define concurrent and non-concurrent forces, equilibrant and resultant. 2. What do you understand by the Triangle law? 3. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the 400- and ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Roof Trusses
1. Name and describe the three classes of roof trusses, and give a sketch of one truss of each class. 2. Give a sketch of the Fink truss and the Modified Fink truss. 3. Given W = al (1 + l/ 10 ), ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Hardware
1. What is the difference between a hinge and a butt? 2. What hardware attachments are desirable when outside window blinds are used? 3. What is the difference between a lock, a latch, and a bolt? H...









TOP
previous page: Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol6 | by G. A. T. Middleton
  
page up: Architecture and Construction Books
  
next page: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol4-6