This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Grout - A thin mixture of cement, sand, and water, which is sometimes forced by pressure into the cracks in defective masonry or to fill cavities which have formed behind masonry walls. Sometimes grout has been used to solidify quicksand. Its use must always be considered as a makeshift with which to improve a bad condition of affairs. It is frequently used in the endeavor to hide defective work.
Joint - The horizontal and vertical spaces between the stones, which are filled with mortar, are called the joints. When they are horizontal, they are called bed-joints. Their width or thickness depends on the accuracy with which the stones are dressed. The joint should always have such a width that any irregularity on the surface of a stone shall not penetrate completely through the mortar joint and cause the stones to bear directly on each other, thus producing concentrated pressures and transverse stresses which might rupture the stones. The criterion used by a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers in classifying different grades of masonry, is to make the classification depend on the required thickness of the joint. These thicknesses have been given when defining various grades of stone masonry.
Fig. 26. Face-Hammer.
Natural Bed - The surfaces of a stone parallel to its stratification.
Fig. 27. Pick.
Fig. 28. Pitched-Faced Masonry.
Pick - A tool which roughly resembles an earth pick, but which has two sharp points. It is used like a cavil for roughly breaking up and forming the stones as desired. (See Fig. 27.)
Pitched-Faced Masonry - That in which the edges of the stone are dressed to form a rectangle which lies in a true plane, although the portion of the face between the edges is not plane. (See Fig. 28.)
Pitching Chisel - A tool which is used with a mallet to prepare pitched-face masonry. The usual dimensions are as illustrated in Fig. 29.
Plinth - Another term for Water-Table, which see.
Plug - A plug is a truncated wedge (see Fig. 30). Corresponding with them are wedge-shaped pieces made of half-round malleable iron. A plug is used in connection with a pair of feathers to split a section of stone uniformly. A row of holes is drilled in a straight line along the surface of the stone, and a plug and pair of feathers are inserted in each hole. The plugs in succession are tapped lightly with a hammer so that the pressure produced by all the plugs is increased as uniformly as possible. When the pressure is uniform, the stone usually splits along the line of the holes without injury to the portions split apart.
Fig. 29. Pitching Chisel.
Point - A tool made of a bar of steel whose end is ground to a point. It is used in the intermediate stage of dressing an irregular surface which has already been roughly trued up with a face-hammer or an ax. For rough masonry, this maybe the finishing tool. For higher-grade masonry, such work will be followed by bush-hammering, crandalling, etc. Pointing - A term applied to the process of scraping out the mortar for a depth of an inch or more on the face of a wall after the wall is complete and is supposed to have become compressed to its final form; the joints are then filled with a very rich mortar-say equal parts of cement and sand. Although ordinary brickwork is usually laid by finishing the joints as the work proceeds, it is impossible to prevent some settling of the masonry, which usually squeezes out some of the mortar and leaves it in a cracked condition so that rain can readily penetrate through the cracks into the wall. By scraping out the mortar, which may be done with a hook before it has become thoroughly hard, the joint may be filled with a high grade of mortar which will render it practically impervious to rainwater. The pointing may be done with a masons' trowel, although, for architectural effect, such work is frequently finished off with specially formed tools which will mould the outer face of the mortar into some desired form.
Quarry-Faced Stone - Stone laid in the wall as it comes from the quarry. The term usually applies to stones which have such regular cleavage planes that even the quarry faces are sufficiently regular for use without dressing.
Fig. 30. Plug and Feathers.
Quoin - A stone placed in the corner of a wall so that it forms a header for one face and a stretcher for the other.
Random - The converse of Coursed Masonry; masonry which is not laid in courses.
Range - Masonry in which each course has the same thickness throughout, but the different courses vary in thickness.
Rip-Rap - Consists of rough stone just as it comes from the quarry, which is placed on the surface of an earth embankment.
Rough-Pointing - Dressing the face of a stone by means of a pick, or perhaps a point, until the surface is approximately plane. This may be the first stage preliminary to finer dressing of the stones. Rubble - Masonry composed of stones as they come from the quarry without any dressing other than knocking off any objectionable protruding points. The thickness may be quite variable, and therefore the joints are usually very thick in places.
Slope-Wall Masonry - A wall, usually of dry rubble, which is built on a sloping bank of earth and supported by it, the object of the wall being chiefly to protect the embankment against scour.
Spalls - Small stones and chips, selected according to their approximate fitness, which are placed between the larger, irregular stones in rubble masonry in order to avoid in places an excessive thickness of the mortar joint. Specifications sometimes definitely forbid their use.
Squared-Stone Masonry - Masonry in which the stones are roughly dressed so that at the joints "the distance between the general planes of the surface of adjoining stones is one-half inch or more."
Stretcher - A stone which is placed in the wall so that its greatest dimension is parallel with the wall.
Template - A wooden form used as a guide in dressing stones to some definite shape (see Figs. 33 and 34).
Two-Men Stone - A rather indefinite term applied to a size and weight of stone which cannot be readily handled except by two men. The term has a significance in planning the masonry work.
Water-Table - A course of stone which projects slightly from the face of the wall and which is usually laid at the top of the foundation wall. Its function is chiefly architectural, although, as its name implies, it is supposed to divert the water which might drain down the wall of a building, and to prevent it from following the face of the foundation wall.
Wooden Brick - A block of wood placed in a wall in a situation where it will later be convenient to drive nails or screws. Such a block is considered preferable to the plan of subsequently drilling a hole and inserting a plug of wood into which the screws or nails may be driven, since such a plug may act as a powerful wedge and crack the masonry.