This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 176 shows the bending details of the bars for a beam or girder in which six bars are required for the reinforcement three of which are turned up, one at a distance of 3 feet, and two at a distance of 4 1/2 feet from the center of the span. The light lines indicate the depth of the beam, including the thickness of the slab; the vertical dash-and-dot lines, the center of the supports of the beam; and the heavy full lines, the bars.
Fig. 176. Bending Detail of Bars for a Beam or Cirder.
Fig. 177. Bars with Hooked Ends.
When plain bars are used for reinforced concrete, architects and engineers very often require that the ends of all the bars in the beams and girders shall be hooked as shown in Fig. 177. This is done to prevent the bars from slipping before their tensile strength is fully developed.