This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
During the first 24 hours after moulding, the test pieces should be kept in moist air to prevent them from drying out. A moist closet or chamber is so easily devised that the use of the damp cloth should be abandoned if possible. Covering the test pieces with a damp cloth is objectionable, as commonly used, because the cloth may dry out unequally, and, in consequence, the test pieces are not all maintained under the same condition. Where a moist closet is not available, a cloth may be used and kept uniformly wet by immersing the ends in water. It should be kept from direct contact with the test pieces by means of a wire screen or some similar arrangement.
A moist closet consists of a soapstone or slate box, or a metal-lined wooden box: the metal lining being covered with felt and this felt kept wet. The bottom of the box is so constructed as to hold water, and the sides are provided with cleats for holding glass shelves on which to place the briquettes. Care should be taken to keep the air in the closet uniformly moist. After 24 hours in moist air the test pieces for longer periods of time should be immersed in water maintained as near 21o Cent. (70° Fahr.) as practicable; they may be stored in tanks or pans, which should be of non-corrodible material.
The tests may be made on any standard machine. A solid metal clip, as shown in Fig. 5, is recommended. This clip is to be used without cushioning at the points of contact with the test specimen. The bearing at each point of contact should be j-inch wide, and the distance between the center of contact on the same clip should be 1 1/4 inches. Test pieces should be broken as soon as they are removed from the water. Care should be observed in centering the briquettes in the testing machine, as cross-strains, produced by improper centering, tend to lower the breaking strength. The load should not be applied too suddenly, as it may produce vibration, the shock from which often breaks the briquette before the ultimate strength is reached. Care must be taken that the clips and the sides of the briquette be clean and free from grains of sand or dirt, which would prevent a good bearing. The load should be applied at the rate of 600 lbs. per minute. The average of the briquettes of each sample tested should be taken as the test, excluding any results which are manifestly faulty.
The object is to develop those qualities which tend to destroy the strength and durability of a cement. As it is highly essential to determine such qualities at once, tests of this character are for the most part made in a very short time, and are known, therefore, as accelerated tests. Failure is revealed by cracking, checking, swelling, or disintegration, or all of these phenomena. A cement which remains perfectly sound is said to be of constant volume.
Methods. Tests for constancy of volume are divided into two classes:
(1) Normal tests, or those made in either air or water maintained at about 21° Cent. (70° Fahr.).
(2) Accelerated tests, or those made in air, steam, or water at a temperature of 45° Cent. (115° Fahr.) and upward. The test pieces should be allowed to remain 24 hours in moist air before immersion in water or steam, or preservation in air. For these tests, pats, about 7 1/2 cm. (2.95 in.) in diameter, 11/4 cm. (0.49 in.) thick at the center, and tapering to a thin edge, should be made, upon a clean glass plate [about 10 cm. (3.94 in.) square], from cement paste of normal consistency.
Fig. 5. Metal Clip for Testing Tensile Strength.
STOCK ROOM IN MANUFACTURING BUILDING OF THE GEORGE N. PIERCE COMPANY, BUFFALO, N. Y.
Courtesy of Trussed Concrete Steel Company, Detroit, Mich.
Normal Test. A pat is immersed in water maintained as near 21° Cent. (70° Fahr.) as possible for 28 days, and observed at intervals. A similar pat is maintained in air at ordinary temperature and observed at intervals.
Accelerated Test. A pat is exposed in any convenient way in an atmosphere of steam, above boiling water, in a loosely closed vessel, for 3 hours.
To pass these tests satisfactorily, the pats should remain firm and hard, and show no signs of cracking, distortion, or disintegration. Should the pat leave the plate, distortion may be detected best with a straight-edge applied to the surface which was in contact with the plate. In the present state of our knowledge it cannot be said that cement should necessarily be condemned simply for failure to pass the accelerated tests; nor can a cement be considered entirely satisfactory, simply because it has passed these tests.
The committee recommends that:
All cement shall be inspected.
Cement may be inspected either at the place of manufacture or on the work.
In order to allow ample time for inspecting and testing, the cement should be stored in a suitable weather-tight building having the floor properly-blocked or raised from the ground.
The cement shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for proper inspection and identification of each shipment.
Every facility shall be provided by the contractor, and a period of at least twelve days allowed for the inspection and necessary tests.
Cement shall be delivered in suitable packages, with the brand and name of manufacturer plainly marked thereon.
Cement failing to meet the 7-day requirements may be held awaiting the results of the 28-day tests, before rejection.
All tests shall be made in accordance with the methods proposed by the Committee on Uniform Tests of Cement of the American Society of Civil Engineers, presented to the Society January 21, 1903, and amended January 20, 1904, with all subsequent amendments thereto.
The acceptance or rejection shall be based on the following requirements:
* Paragraphs 59 to 71 inclusive were taken from the report of a Committee of the American Society for Testing Materials.