In the case of the web view, it is generally necessary to show what is on both sides of the web, as except in special cases, one elevation only of the web is given.

Fig. 210 gives the detail of the cast iron column shown on the setting plan in Fig. 199. The foot of the column rests on a solid cast iron plate and sets into a ring on this plate to prevent lateral movement. There are a variety' of details for holding the foot of the column in place, but this is one very generally used. The relation of the bottom of the base plate to the finished floor line should always be given to enable the plate to be set at the proper grade.

Column Details Part 2 0500234

Fig. 210.

Connection of beams to columns is by a shelf under the beam and a lug bolted to the web to hold the beam in position. The top surface of the bracket should slope about 1/16 in. so as to avoid the tendency of the beam when it deflects to bring the load on the outer edge of the bracket.

The lugs are generally 1/2 or 3/4 in. thick. The bracket should of course be wide enough to receive the flange of the beam. The thickness of the bracket and rib under it varies with the load. This rib in general is beveled at an angle of 30 degrees with the axis of the column. The accompanying table gives the thicknesses which are sufficient for most cases.

The lugs are braced by ribs back to the column shaft so as to prevent being broken off. The flange at the top which connects the two sections of the columns may be 3/4 in. or more, up to 11 /2 in. in some cases; for usual sizes of columns, 3/4 or 1 in. is sufficient. The holes in the flange must be spaced so as to enable bolts to be turned up without interfering with the shaft of the column and the distance from the top of the beam to underside of the flange must be sufficient for this purpose.

Fig. 211 gives the details of the beam connections, and the cap for column No. 2 in Fig. 199. This is not a complete shop detail but shows one of the steps in the complete detailing of a column which is generally the first step; namely, the drawing of connections, locating the same on the shaft and spacing rivets in the connections.

Column Details Part 2 0500235

Size of Beam

-b-

-t-

-h-

Up to 7"

4"

3/4"

6"

7",8",9",10",12"

5 1/2"

1"

6"

15"

6"

1 1/4"

6"

1/",20"

6 1/2"

1 1/4"

8"

24"

7 1/2"

1 1/2"

9"

Dimensions of Brackets and Lugs.

Column Details Part 2 0500236

Fig 211.

Column Details Part 2 0500237

Fig. 212.

Note that the spacing for holes in the cap and in the shelf angles is given in a separate plan, and in this plan the holes are located with respect to each angle and are also located by measurement between holes on opposite sides of the axis of the column. This is advisable in case there is any variation in the measurement back to back of the column angles, or between outside faces of angles. After the column is riveted up, other measurements can be adjusted to the over-all measurements between holes; this measurement is also useful in checking.

The cap angles are bolted on for shipment. In many cases it would be impossible to place a beam between the webs of two columns without taking off the cap angles; for this reason, cap angles on the web should always be shipped bolted on. Cap angles on the flange, in many cases, do not require to be bolted on. Where there are flange plates, the rivets must either be flattened or the beam cut short to allow clearance for the rivet heads. Where the spacing between the vertical lines of rivets in the flange is sufficient to allow the flange of the beam to be lowered between them, the cap angles could be bolted on and the rivets would not then need to be flattened.

The draftsman should constantly have clearly in mind what is necessary to enable the structure to be erected. The details must often be modified in some way to avoid a construction in which it is impossible to erect some member.

The outstanding legs of shear angles under the brackets are here shown riveted together. As previously stated, many details are made with only one shear angle, and where two are used they are not always riveted together. For ordinary loads it is not essential to rivet them together, but is better construction and should always be done where the loads are very considerable.

Fig. 212 shows the detail of a column composed of two angles, back to back, and Fig. 213 gives the bill of material. The only loads in this case are from the beams over the top. If a beam was framed into the shaft of the column parallel with the axis of the two adjacent legs, a connection of a plate riveted to these angles with shelf angles riveted to this plate similar to what is shown for the head, could have been used. The student should study carefully the bill of material of this column, and thoroughly understand each item and the notes regarding the shop work to be done.

Fig. 214 shows the second section of a box column made of two channels with flange plates. Table V, Part I, gives the distance back to back of channels, in order that the radius of gyration shall be equal about each axis. In a box column the distance back to back of channels, should never be less than this. The Carnegie Company and most other shops have standard spacings for such columns which should in general be followed.

As the flange plates on this section are not as thick as those on

Bill of Material for 4 Columns.

ITEM

No of

PIECES

KIND

SIZE

LENGTH

WORK

FEET

INCHES

8

ANGLES

4"x4"x5/16"

9

5

FACED BOTH ENDS

a

4

PLATES

8 1/2"x1/2"

1

4

COUNTERSUNK

B-B'

8

ANGLES

6"x4"x3/8"

0

5 3/4

D

4

,,

6"x6"x3/8"

0

8 1/2

E

4

PLATES

9 3/4"x5/16"

1

6

BEVELLED-FACED

F

72

FILLERS

2 3/4"x5/16"

G

4

,,

3 3/4x5/19"

0

5 3/4

H-H

8

ANGLES

6"x31/2"x3/8"

0

4 9/16

J

4

,,

6"x3 1/2"x3/8"

0

8 1/2

K

4

PLATES

8 1/2"x1/2"

0

11

COUNTERSUNK

Fig. 213.

Bill of Material for 3 Columns

ITEM

NO of

PC'S

KIND

SIZE

WI per

Foot

LENGTH

WORK

FEET

INCHES

6

CHANNELS

10"

25"

22

11 1/2

FACED BOTH ENDS

6

PLATES

12"x3/4"

22

11 1/2

,, ,, ,,

A

3

,,

12"x1/2"

0

11 1/2

COUNTERSUNK.

B

6

,,

12"x1/2

1

6 1/2

C

12

ANGLES

3 1/2"x2 1/2"x3/8"

0

8

D-D'

12

,,

4"x3"x3/8"

1

1

BEVELLED

E-E'

12

,,

6"x4"x1/2"

1

1

,,

F

12

,,

3"x3"x5/16"

1

2 1/2

,, FITTED

G

12

,,

3"x3"x5/16"

0

8 1/2

,, ,,

H

12

FILLERS

3"x1/2"

0

8 3/4"

J

12

,,

2 3/4"x1/2"

0

3

K

12

ANGLES

6"x4"x1/2"

0

8

L

6

FILLERS

8 3/4"x1/4"

1

0

SHIP BOLTED.

Fig. 215.

Column Details Part 2 0500238

Fig. 216.

the lower section, it is necessary to ship filler plates bolted to the column.

There are two beams framed to each flange of this column so that the shear angles are spread to come as nearly as practicable under the web of the beams. These angles cannot always be made to come directly under the web on account of the relation between the spacing of beams and the spacing of rivets through flanges of channels of columns. Some variation in size of angles can be made, however, at times to effect this result.