This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 21. Details of Compass Joint.
Fig. 22. Pentagonal Shank and Socket.
Fig. 23. Circular Shank and Socket.
In removing the pencil or pen attachment from the compass it should be pulled out straight in order to avoid enlarging the socket, and thus rendering the instrument inaccurate. For drawing large circles use the lengthening bar, Fig. 19, steadying the needle point with one hand and describing the circle with the other.
Dividers. Dividers, which are similar to compasses, are used to lay off distances on the drawing, either from a scale or from other parts of the drawing, Fig. 25. They are also used for dividing a line into equal parts. To do this turn the dividers in the opposite direction each time, i. e., move the point alternately to the right and to the left. The points of the dividers should be very sharp so that the holes made in the paper will be small, thus assuring accurate spacing. Compasses may be used as dividers by substituting for the pencil or pen point an extra steel point, usually furnished with the instrument. In place of dividers many draftsmen use a needle 'point. The needle, with the eye-end broken off, is forced into a handle of soft pine, making a convenient instrument for marking line intersections and distances.
Fig. 24. Circular Socket with Set Screw.
Fig. 25. Dividers.
Bow Pen and Bow Pencil. Ordinary large compasses are too heavy and the leverage of the long leg is too great to allow small circles to be drawn accurately. For this reason the bow compasses, Figs. 26 and 27, should be used on all ares and circles having a radius of less than 3/4 inch, such as those which represent boiler tubes and bolt holes. When small circles are drawn, the needle point must be adjusted to the same length as the pen or pencil point. If a considerable change in radius is made, press the points together before turning the nut so as to prevent wear in the screw threads. The bow dividers, Fig. 28, replace the ordinary dividers in small work and have the advantage of a fixed adjustment.
Fig. 26. Bow Pencil.
Fig. 27. Bow Pen.
Fig. 28. Bow Dividers.
Drawing Pen. For drawing straight lines and curves that are not arcs of circles, the line pen - sometimes called the ruling pen - is used, Fig. 29. The distance between the pen points, which regulates the width of line to be drawn, is adjusted by the thumb screw, and the blades are given a slight curvature so that there will be a cavity for ink when the points are close together.
Fig. 29. Drawing Pen.
The pen should not be dipped in the ink but should be filled by means of a common steel pen or quill, to a height of about 1/4 or 3/8 inch; if too much ink is placed in the pen it is likely to drop out and spoil the drawing. Upon finishing the work wipe the pen with chamois or a soft cloth, because most liquid inks corrode the steel.
In using the pen, care should be taken that both blades bear equally on the paper, in order that the line may be smooth. The pen is usually inclined slightly in the direction in which the line is drawn and should touch the triangle or T-square lightly so as not to press the blades together and thereby change the width of the line; the pen must not be tipped outward, however, as the danger of blotting is greatly increased when the line is drawn so close to the guide.
Sharpening the Drawing Pen. When it is impossible to make a smooth line with the drawing pen, it should be sharpened. Screw the blades together and grind them to a parabolic shape by drawing the pen back and forth over a small, flat, close-grained oilstone. This process, of course, makes the blades dull but insures their being of the same length. Now separate the points slightly and rub one of them on the oilstone, keeping the pen at an angle of from 10° to 15° with the face of the stone, and giving it a slight twisting movement. This part of the operation requires great care as the shape of the ends must not be altered. After one point has become fairly sharp, grind the other in a similar manner, grinding always on the outside of the blades and removing the burr from the inside with leather or pine wood. Test the pen by filling with ink and drawing several lines. Unless the lines are smooth, the grinding must be continued.
Ink. India ink is always used for drawing as it makes a permanent black line; it is obtainable in solid stick or liquid form. The liquid form is much more convenient but contains acid which corrodes steel and makes it necessary to keep the pen perfectly clean.
To prepare the ink in stick form for use, put a little water in a saucer and place one end of the stick in it; then by a twisting motion grind enough ink to make the water black and slightly thickened. Now draw a heavy line on a sheet of paper and if after drying the line has a grayish appearance, more grinding is necessary. Wipe the stick dry after using to prevent crumbling. It is well to grind the ink in small quantities as it does not dissolve readily a second time; however, if covered it will keep for two or three days.