This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
RESIDENCE OF MRS. R. D. LAWRENCE, SPRINGFIELD, ILL.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111. For Other Exterior Views, See Page 218. Building Completed in 1903.
RESIDENCE AND STABLE FOR MR. F. W. LITTLE, PEORIA, ILL.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111.
The edge of the wash should always be kept wet, for if it begins to dry a streak will surely follow. The tint should he carried down evenly across the board, moving the brush rapidly from side to side so that one side does not advance faster than the other. Carry the tint down about an inch at a time, the amount depending upon the size of the brush and of the surface rendered. Always go over the previous half inch at every new advance, taking care not to touch any part that has already dried. In this way the tint will dry gradually, parallel to the work. Carry the sides of the tint forward a little more slowly than the center. This will make the tint run towards the center and help to avoid the lines or streaks due to uneven drying.
The tint should be carried forward in such a way that the paper will be thoroughly and evenly wet. In fact, it is a very good plan to dampen the entire drawing with a soft sponge before beginning to lay a wash. This dampening should be carried well beyond the edges of the drawing so as to prevent the color from spreading to the drier and more absorbent parts of the paper. Always remove the pool of tint which remains at the bottom of a wash in the manner described under "Handling the Brush." If allowed to remain it will dry more slowly than the rest of the drawing and a streak will show.
The drawing board should be left inclined until the wash is dry. Never lay one wash over another before the previous one is absolutely dry.
In laying washes which grade gradually, either from dark to light or light to dark, grade the tint by the addition of water or color each time that an advance is made, and be careful that these additions are such that the change in color is made evenly.
It is very difficult to lay an evenly graded dark tint with one wash only. It is usually better to lay a light flat wash or a light graded wash to serve for a background on which to lay the dark graded wash. By a flat wash is meant a wash which is the same tone or color throughout; that is, a wash that is not graded. See opening in Doric Doorway, Roman Temple, Cori, opposite page.
Water has to be added constantly in grading. Where then-is a series of graded washes, as in successive window openings, it is better to have two or three saucers containing tints of different strength and carry each tint for the same distance in each window so that the gradation of color may be the same. In grading in this way it is necessary to carry each new wash well back over the old one so the point where one tint ends and another begins may not show.
Sometimes gradations are obtained by laying successive flat washes, each wash beginning a little lower than the previous one. In this way the rendered surface will begin with one flat tint and end with a number of tints, one on top of the other. This is called the French method and is done by drawing very faint parallel lines at close intervals to mark the limit of each wash. A very light wash is then put over the whole surface, and this is followed with successive washes, each starting from the next lower line. This method is especially good for rendering narrow, long, horizontal graded washes. See rendering of mouldings in classical cornice opposite. Note particularly the application of this method on the crown moulding, and practically all the curved mouldings.
Avoid laying too many washes in the same place, as the continuous wetting and rubbing which the paper gets from the brush is liable to injure the surface.
If the tints are too dark, a soft sponge can be used to lighten them or to take out hard or dark border lines; but a large brush about two inches wide is still better for this purpose. If it is necessary to use a sponge, use it with a great deal of water, rub very lightly and very patiently. The water should be kept very clean, and the surrounding parts should be thoroughly wet before wetting the tinted part, otherwise the tint may spread over the other parts of the drawing. After using the sponge, dry the paper carefully with a clean blotter. Another and better way is to place the whole drawing under the faucet, turn on the water and use the sponge or brush, as already described, on the parts to be lightened.
To make light places darker, use the point of a brush, applying the tint in small dots. Be careful not to begin with too dark a tint. This process is called stippling, and it must be done very gradually and very carefully.
Do not forget that the first quality of a wash is crispness. It is necessary to draw with the same precision with a brush as with a pencil. When the drawing is finished it should be allowed to dry thoroughly before it is cut from the drawing board.
Showing Lights and Shadows on Classical Cornice, and French Method of Rendering.
Rendering Elevations. The object of rendering a drawing is to explain the building. Those parts of the building nearest to the spectator should show the greatest contrast in light and dark, for in nature, as an object recedes from the eye, the contrast becomes feebler and feebler and finally vanishes in a monotone. Every elevation shows the horizontal and vertical dimensions of a building, or details of a building, but in a line drawing the projections of the different parts when in direct front elevation are not shown; and it is to indicate these projections that the shadows are cast and the drawing is rendered. The appearance of a building or any details of a building will be clearly shown by the shadows in their different values of light and dark. (See plates, pages 18 and 23.) The windows and other openings of a building should be colored dark, but not black - although this is sometimes required in competition drawings - and varying lighter tints should be used to indicate the color of the material in the roof and walls, the difference in the color intensity indicating the varying distances from the spectator. Note in plate on page 5, the comparative values of rendering in roof and shadows on roof; also portions of order in light, portions in shadow, and background of column. This method of drawing is frequently carried to an elaborate extent by showing high lights, reflected shadows, etc., and an elevation can thus be made to show almost as much of the character of the proposed building as would be shown by a perspective view or by a photograph of the completed structure. See frontispiece, "Fragments from Roman Temple at Cori." Study the different tone values of the various objects in the foreground and in the background, and note the perspective effect of the background.