Broken stone filling cu. yd.

$ 2.50

Cesspool 6 ft. diam. and 8 ft. deep, 8 in. brick

60.00

Blind drains per lineal ft.

.12

Earthen drains 4 in. diam. per foot

$ .20

Arch brick laid in wall per M.

100.00

Marble mosaic per sq. ft.

.75

Marble threshold, exterior

5.00

Marble base per foot

.50

Granolithic per sq. ft.

.25

Steel beams per lb.

.03

Cast iron per lb.

.02

Copper skylights per sq. ft., heavy 1.75 to 2.50

Plastering 2 coats on wire lath

.65

Wooden balustrade per ft.

1.50

Outside blinds for a house will average per pair

.85

Inside doors, 5 cross panels, pine to paint, average

3.25

Store sash 1 3/4 in. per lineal foot

.30

Storm sash for house will average

1.55

Outside door frame with transom

3.50

Inside door frames will average

1.10

Same with transoms

1.85

Factory window complete 4 ft. 0 in. X 8 ft. 0 in.

13.00

Framing heavy lumber per M.

12.00

Planing lumber per M.

2.00

Laying plank floors per M.

9.00

Common bricks per M.

9.00

Common bricks laid in wall per M.

20.00

Concrete foundations per cu. yd.

7.25

Shingling on roof per square

6.54

Slating

11.80

Tar and gravel roof per square

6.00

Tin roofing per square, average

11.00

Roofing

Description. Many kinds of material are used for covering roofs, depending upon the nature of the work, the pitch of the roof, the desired appearance, and the availability of material.

Shingles. The roof covering of an ordinaiy wooden house is generally of shingles. These are either shaved or sawed, but sawed shingles are generally used. Sawed shingles come in bundles of 250, or four bundles to the thousand. These quantities are based on a width of 4 in. to each shingle so that if they are wider they will be numerically less and consequently, if narrower, there will be more in number. Common shingles are 16 in. to 18 inches in length.

Measuring. In measuring for shingles the quantities are usually taken by the square; equal to 100 sq. ft., and the number of shingles required will depend upon the lap or exposure which is given to the shingles. On roofs the exposed length is usually 4 1/2 inches, and on walls 5 or 6 inches is the usual exposure, although in the carrying out of special designs a greater or less exposure may be given.

Quantities. The covering capacity of 1000 shingles at various exposures is as follows:

4

inches to the weather

111 sq.ft.

=

900 per square

4 1/2

inches to the weather

125 sq. ft.

=

800 per square

5

inches to the weather

139 sq. ft.

=

720 per square

6

inches to the weather

167 sq. ft.

=

600 per square

7

inches to the weather

194 sq. ft.

=

514 per square

8

inches to the weather

222 sq. ft.

=

450 per square

Cost. Sawed cedar shingles of best quality marked "Extra" will cost from $4.00 to $5.00 per thousand, and clear shingles, that is, having the exposed lower third of clear stock, will cost $3.50 to $4.00 per thousand, and it will require 5 pounds of 4 penny nails. These will cost 3 cents a pound if plain, or 5 cents, galvanized.

A carpenter in one day of 8 hours will lay 1500 shingles on plain work or 1000 if surface is much cut up. This will cost at $3.20 per day from $2.14 to $3.00. In estimating shingling an allowance will be necessary for waste; this should be about 5 per cent on plain roofs and 8 to 10 per cent on roofs with many hips, valleys, or dormers.

Slating. Slates are made in different sizes from 6 x 12 up to 16x24 and larger sizes for special work. They are laid with reference to head-cover rather than exposure, that is: the lap of cover of each course by the second above it, gives the gauge to which slates should be laid, Fig. 16; this lap is usually 3 inches, so that the exposed length of any slate may be found by subtracting this lap from the length of the slate and dividing by 2. This exposure multiplied by the width of the slate gives the exposed area of the slate, and the number of slates in a given area may be found by dividing the area in square inches by the exposed area of the slate.

Fig. 16. Slating.

Fig. 16. Slating.

Example. How many slates will be required per square to cover a roof if 8-in. x 14-in. slates are used?

(1in. -3in.)/24= 5 1/2 in.; 8 in. x 5 1/2 in. = 44 sq. in.;14400 sq.in./44sq.in= 327.

In measuring a slate roof it is usual to allow an extra width of from 6 inches to a foot, according to localities, on hips, valleys, eaves, and wall cuttings, to allow for the extra work involved.

Extra charge should be made for towers and all varied forms of roof.

Quantities. The number of slates required to cover a square of roofing is given for various sizes in the following table:

6

X

12

533

7

X

14

377

8

X

16

277

9

X

18

214

10

X

20

165

11

X

22

138

12

X

24

114

14

X

28

83

The cost of slating per square is as follows:

Slates

10 in. x 16 in.

$ 7.50

Labor 1 day, slater

3.50

Nails

.15

Roofing paper

.50

Labor on paper

.15

$11.80

Tin roof per sq. ft., average

$0.11

Gutters per ft., galv. iron

.90

Galv. iron conductors per ft., put up

18 to .25

Copper roof, plain per square

40.00

Copper roof, with battens per square

50.00

Gravel roofing, 5-ply per square

6.00

Zinc flashing, 1 1/2 cents per inch of width, per foot.

Tiles. Where a special feature is to be made of the roof, tiles are often used but these are found in such a variety of shapes, sizes, and prices, that a roof of this sort should always be given to a roofer to estimate.

Metal Roofs. Copper or tin is generally used for roofs where a metal covering is desired. Copper roofs, if steep enough to show as a feature of the building, are usually laid with ribs over battens. This makes a handsome and durable roof the cost being not greatly increased.

Copper roofing will cost from $35.00 to $40.00 per square. Flashings around skylights and balustrades, 30 to 50 cents a lineal foot.

For a cheaper metal roof, tin is generally used; this may be used on steep or flat roofs. Tin for roofing should be painted on the under side and carefully soldered on the top.

Tin roofing will cost from $10.00 to $12.00 a square.

Composition Roofs. For flat roofs, a composition of tar and paper in layers finished with a protective coat of gravel, is often used; the cost of this depends upon the number of layers of paper and "moppings" of tar required, but a 5-ply roof will give good service and will cost about $6.00 a square.

Gutters and Conductors. Gutters and conductors are both made of wood or metal, metal being preferred in all cases. For metal gutters copper and galvanized iron are used.

Copper gutters will cost about

$1.25 a lineal foot.

Copper conductors

.50 to .75 a foot

Goosenecks

5.00 to 10.00 each

Moulded conductor heads

4.00to 10.00 each

Straps

1.00 each

Galvanized iron gutters will cost about 90 cents a lineal foot, and conductors, 18 to 25 cents a foot according to size.