This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Attic Framing Plan. On this drawing (Fig. 37), the roof plate is shown, and also the location of the hard pine ledger-board. The partition caps of the story below, on which the joists rest, are shown. The joists in the attic floor are 2 by 8, placed 1G inches on centers
Roof Framing Plan. The rafters and hips are shown (Fig. 38) 2 by 10; the valley rafters, 3 by 9; the ridge, 2 by 8 inches. The rafters either side of the dormer openings are 4 by 7, and the headers for the dormers are also 4 by 7 inches. All the other main rafters are 2 by 7 inches, placed 20 inches on centers; and the dormer rafters, 2 by 6, placed 20 inches on centers. The plate line, which is the same as the first-floor sill line, is shown as a full line, and the dimensions are given from this line.
Framing of Front Elevation. The framing of the front elevation of the house above the foundation is shown in Fig. 39. The sill is 6 by 8, resting on its 8-inch face. The corner posts are 4 by 6, framed into the sill; and a 4 by 6 flush girt is shown running around the house. It will be noticed that the girt stops on the side elevations where it is marked "4 by 6 sunk girt" (Fig. 40). The plate is formed of 2 by 4 joists, which break joints all around the building. The frame is braced by 3 by 4 studs, these braces being as long as possible, which is considered better construction than the former short-brace system. In cheaper work, 2 by 4 braces, halved into the studding, are sometimes used in the same position. The filling-in studs are 2 by 4, set 1G inches on centers. The door and window studs are 3 by 4 inches, set 5 inches clear of the sash opening.
The dimensions are given to the centers of the openings. The heights are generally given to the finished floor, which would be 2 inches above the joist line. The large openings are trussed, as shown over the front door opening. The rafters are 2 by 7, set 20 inches on centers, the hips being 2 by 10, and the valley rafters 3 by 4. The dormers are built up of 4 by 4 corner posts and 4 by 7 rafters each side of the opening. The ridge is 2 by 8, the distance to the top of ridge being given above the top of the plate, and all the points on the ridge rafters and ridge may be located on the sill line to the junction of the hip.
Framing of Side Elevation. The sill, girts, corner posts, studding, plate, and rafters (Fig. 40), are similar to those already described on the front elevation. The framing of the front and rear porches is also shown, with the dimensions given similarly. The attic floor joists are supported on a 1 by 6 hard pine ledger-board, which is cut into the studding after the manner of balloon framing.
Main Cornice and Dormer. Fig. 41 is reduced from a drawing made at a scale of three-fourths inch to the foot. This plate should be drawn out at the original scale mentioned; and a full-size pencil study should be made for comparison.
Kitchen, Pantry, and China Closet. Fig. 42 shows the details of kitchen, pantry, and china closet reduced from a drawing made at a scale of one-half inch to the foot, and larger details at a scale of one and one-half inches to the foot, showing shelving, lockers, and doors. These are all included in the interior finish, and should follow the specifications as to sizes. The mouldings should all be full-size.
Plumbing. Fig. 43 shows the plumbing details for this building, These details are carried somewhat further than is usually done on plans, but no further than advisable, as they will be found of great assistance in carrying out and superintending the work. The basement plan shows the direction of the sewer connection, which is a horizontal pipe, six inches in diameter, of cast iron, located either on the basement ceiling or in a trench on the cellar floor. In this case it must be below the cellar-floor level in order to take the laundry tubs. The section shows the elevations of the pipe carried up through the house.
There will be a trap between the point shown and the sewer, just outside the wall of the house. The leader connections are 4-inch cast-iron pipe inside the house in cellar floor, and 4-inch terra-cotta outside the house, to take the water from the gutters and conductors. On the first connection there is a cleanout, and the size of the pipe is reduced from 6 inches to 4 inches. There should be cleanouts at every bend, and also at about every fifteen feet of horizontal run. There should be a bell trap (Fig. 44) to take the cellar surface water, also branches for general fixtures through the house, as shown. The vertical pipe of 4-inch cast iron would rest on a brick pier at the bottom built by the mason.
The vent pipes from the trap of every fixture are shown in dotted lines, and are carried up beyond the highest fixture, where they may be carried back into the soil pipe or through the roof. Branches are taken off for the laundry tubs, china closet, sink, lavatory, tub, and closet, as shown in the section and on the first and second-floor plumbing plans. Sometimes these pipes are shown in blue on the regular working drawings; but there is an advantage in having them on a separate sheet, as has been done in this detail. The vent pipes from the traps may be of 2-inch cast iron or of 2-inch galvanized wrought iron. This practice varies with the building laws in different localities.