This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The sash are usually made one and three-quarters inches thick, for house construction; sometimes, in less expensive work, they are made one and one-half inches thick, and, for cheap cellar windows, one and one-quarter inches thick. For plate glass they should not be less than one and three-quarter inches thick; and for important work, they are usually two and one-quarter inches thick. Frames may be veneered on the inside, to match the other interior finish.
Porch and Front Entrance. For detail of these, see Fig. 48.
Trim on First Floor. For detail, see Fig. 49.
Uniform Titles for Drawings. Fig. 50 shows a scheme for a uniform title to be use on working drawings. This may be made as a rubber stamp, the name of the drawing being lettered in, the name of the building being set up in rubber type, and the remainder being permanent. This stamp should be put on the drawing whenever it is started, a rubber dating stamp being used to give the date of beginning; the building number and sheet number should be recorded in the drawing book. The architect or draftsman who lays out the drawing puts his initials under the word "Drawn;" the draftsman who finishes it puts his initials under the word "Traced;" another puts his initials under the word "Checked," with the date; and finally the architect adds his initials and date after the drawings are ready to go out of the office. On the lower right-hand corner is a space where date of any revision may be entered. This stamp may be made four and seven-eighths inches long, so that it can be used on a 3 by 5 index card, for the drawing record; and also on a postal card, for a receipt to be signed by the contractor on receiving the drawing, or for any other memoranda in regard to drawings.
Staircase and Fireplace Details. One of the best ways to prepare for the designing of buildings is to study and make memoranda of interesting plans and details. This is especially true in relation to house building, as well as to the planning of large buildings. Some of the most interesting sketch books are those filled with small-plan details which can be referred to and used in the same manner as window or door details could be used in designing elevations. Fig. 51 shows several such small drawings on one sheet.
Fig. A shows the usual way of working out a back staircase entirely enclosed between partitions, one staircase going down under the other. This is very compact, and may be worked out in wood or iron and between plaster or brick walls. The space may be larger or smaller than that shown. The width of stairs from the finished wall to center of rail should never be less than 2 feet 2 inches for the smallest staircase, and usually 2 feet 8 inches is employed for a back staircase. Sometimes the newel posts are brought together as one, making what is practically a circular staircase.
Fig. B shows a combination staircase; that is to say, the front staircase goes up to a landing, and then continues in any direction to the second floor. From this landing a door opens, leading down to the service part of the house, giving many of the advantages of a back staircase, with loss of only a small amount of space.
Fig. C gives an interesting combination of staircase and fireplace. The fireplace is one step below the general floor level; and the ceiling is kept lower than the general ceiling of the room, with a small staircase leading up to a mezzanine story, above the fireplace, which may be arranged to look down on the main floor of the room or may form a sort of gallery.
Fig. D shows a staircase going up to a landing which is carried out into a room as a balcony indicated by dotted lines. At this level a little bay window is carried out over an outside doorway below. As there are only eleven risers shown, it would be necessary in this case to have the landing made of plank laid flat, to get head room for the seat.
Fig. F shows another arrangement of circular staircase differing from that shown in Fig. A, as it contains space for a service elevator or lift.
Fig. G shows a scissors staircase, which is sometimes used in double houses occupied by different families on each floor. This construction makes a saving of space, as the staircases may be placed under each other, while each family is able to go from floor to floor by its own private staircase. This arrangement is also sometimes used in schoolhouses, where there is height enough to have mezzanine toilet rooms at the landings, with separate stairways for boys and girls in the same given space on plan.
Fig. H shows an arrangement for the fireplace between dining room and living room where space is desired for closets or serving room between. On one side is built the ordinary fireplace with seats on each side, the tiling being carried out to the end of the seats; on the other side the hearth is carried out with brick floor, and the hood is carried out over this so that a basket of coals can be set directly on the brick floor. Sometimes the fire-basket is placed below the floor level, so that the surface comes about on a level with the floor.
Figs. 52 to 55 show working drawings of prominent architectural firms. It should be noted how carefully and clearly everything is drawn - from the lettering to the sculptured parts.
The preliminaries to starting a drawing, are:
Stretch half a sheet of Whatman's Imperial cold-pressed paper, 22 by 15 inches in size. While this is drying, sketch out rapidly with pencil, T-square, and triangles, on a piece of manila detail paper, the main lines of the proposed drawing. This will show the proper placing of the drawing, and save much erasing on the final sheet.
Sometimes tracing paper may be mounted over the Whatman's paper, and a place cut for making the final drawing; or the study may be made directly on the tracing paper over the final sheet, and then cut out and redrawn or transferred.
The paper required for the first drawing is, therefore:
One sheet Whatman's "Imperial" drawing paper.
One yard manila detail paper.
Several yards of Rowney's English tracing paper.
LITTLE ORCHARD FARM," A COUNTRY RESIDENCE AT CAMP HILL, PENNSYLVANIA.