This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.

In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia, numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of* the various methods and principles. Accompanying these are examples for practice which will aid the reader in fixing the principles in mind.

In the following pages are given a large number of test questions and problems which afford a valuable means of testing the reader's knowledge of the subjects treated. They will be found excellent practice for those preparing for College, Civil Service, or Engineer's License. In some cases numerical answers are given as a further aid in this work.

1. What are the structural elements of a building and wna are the functions of each?

2. Define the terms "wall columns," "wall girders," "lintels," "spandrel beams," "curtain walls." Describe the purpose of each.

3. Give the thickness of exterior walls from basement to roof of a ten-story building, using the table given in Chicago laws.

4. Given an office building of ten stories each 12 feet between floors, with wall columns spaced 16 feet center to center and having three windows in each story 4 feet between jambs and 7 feet high, separated by two piers 16 inches wide on face,

(a) Give the minimum thickness of walls by the New York law, if these walls are carried on steel lintels.

(6) Draw a section of this wall over one window, showing the size and character of lintel required to carry the wall between columns and to support a 4-inch stone arch over the window.

5. What are the general types of floor arches in use?

6. State the systems which require the use of tie rods, and state why these are necessary.

7. Define the terms "beam" and "girder" and state the two uses of the term "beam."

8. Make out a schedule of plain material to be ordered from the mill, including angles, tees, zees, beams, and channels. Give all information required to enable mill to make shipment.

9. Given a floor framing plan in which there are 12-inch 3l 1/2-pound beams, 18 feet between centers of bearings, and spaced 5 feet 6 inches center to center,

(a) Using Table II, give the total safe load per square foot which these beams will carry.

(J) Determine the total safe load at a fiber stress of 12500 pounds per square inch by using the formula for bending moment in beams and the Table of Properties.

10. What would be the allowable fiber stress for a 15-inch 42-pound beam on a span of 28 feet between centers of bearings in order that the limit of plaster deflection may not be exceeded? The allowable fiber stress for less than the plaster limit is to be taken at 16,000 pounds per square inch.

11. Determine the vertical deflection of a 6-inch by 4-inch by 3/8-inch angle, 8 feet between centers of bearings, having its long leg vertical, and loaded with 1,500 pounds uniformly distributed.

12. Define the term "factor of safety." State the reasons for the use of different values for different materials.

13. Give the steps in the determination of the load to be carried by

(a) A floor beam.

(b) A floor girder.

(c) An interior column.

14. Give the data required and the operations necessary co determine:

(a) The actual fiber stress on a given beam supporting known loads.

(b) The total load uniformly distributed which a given beam will carry at a given fiber stress.

(c) The size of beam required to support a given system of loads on a given span.

15. State the considerations ordinarily determining the form of column to be used.

16. State the factors which determine the safe load which a given column section will support if Gordon's formula is used.

17. For what combination of loading should roof trusses be designed?

18. State the functions of fire-resisting materials.

1. Describe in detail the method of procedure in laying out the steel framing of an office building, starting from the architect's plans, as a basis, and giving each step.

2. State some of the considerations affecting the choice of a column shape.

3. Given a 15-inch 42-pound beam on an effective span of 12 feet. Determine the bending moment in inch pounds which this beam will cany, assuming a safe fibre stress of 16,000 pounds.

4. Determine the total load uniformly distributed which the above beam will carry.

5. Determine the total load the beam of Question 3 will carry if concentrated in two equal loads, dividing the span into thirds. Show that the relation between total uniform load and total loads concentrated as above is always constant.

6. In the above beam determine the total load which can be carried if concentrated at the center, and show that this relation of this concentrated load to the total uniform load is always constant.

7. What is the distinction between the terms "dead load" and "live load?"

8. Why is it important to have the framing symmetrical about the axis of a column, and what effect on the column does eccentric connection have?

9. Determine the proper size of cast-iron bearing plate to use with a 15-inch 42-pound beam having an effective span of 18 feet and loaded with a maximum safe uniform load at a fibre strain of 15,000 pounds; the beam having a bearing of 12 inches on the wall, and the safe bearing being taken at 15 tons per square foot.

10. State safe values of "live load" for building of the fol-lowing classes when designed for the customary uses:

(a) Office building.

(b) School building.

(c) Assembly hall.

(d) Hotel.

(e) Warehouse.

11. Using Gordan's formula, determine the total load which can be safely carried by a column 11 feet long, composed of a 12-inch by 1/2-inch web plate, and four angles each 6 inches by 4 by A- inches with the long leg out.

12. Using the formula given by the New York building law, determine the total safe load that can be carried by a cast-iron column 10 inches in diameter, 1 1/2 inches thick, and 12 feet long. Use formula given in Cambria for determining value of radius of gyration.

13. State the data required and the operations involved in the following cases:

(a) To find the actual fibre stress on a given beam supporting known loads.

(b) To find the size of beam required to carry a system of known loads at a given fibre stress.

(c) To find the total load uniformly distributed, which a given beam will carry at a given fibre strain.

14. Determine by Gordan's formula the total safe load that can be carried by a column 14 feet long composed of two 10-inch 15-pound channels placed 6 1/2 inches back to back with two side plates 12 x 5/8 inches riveted to the flange.

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