This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Erasers: A large soft rubber, and a firm one; also an ink eraser and erasing shield.
Set of instruments, including compasses, bow instruments, dividers, ruling pen.
Architect's scale. 2 drawing boards, 28 x 42 and 23 x 32 inches. T-square, and one 45° and one 30°-60° triangle. Nest of tinting saucers, sponge, blotters, India ink, half-cake of carmine, half-tube of Prussian blue, Whatman's hot-pressed paper, Imperial size. Manila paper. Cross-section paper. Tracing paper.
1. Give the dimensions of "Double Elephant" paper; of "Imperial" paper.
2. What simple method is adopted by architects to correct a T-square which does not fit a drawing exactly?
3. What expedient is adopted by architects to identify the T-square with which a drawing is made and why is this necessary?
4. Describe the difference between "hot pressed" and "cold pressed " paper and the purposes for which each is best adapted.
5. Describe "tinted papers, and scratch papers" and their use.
6. How is the flow of ink on tracing cloth improved? Which side of the cloth is used? Why?
7. What is the advantage of tracing paper? of tracing cloth?
8. What is the customary scale for drawings in American offices? in English offices?
9. Explain fully the special advantages of the 3-inch, 1-inch and 3/4-inch scales.
10. What is a plan; an elevation; a section?
11. Lay out the plan and section of a staircase on a scale of 1/4-inch equals 1 foot, to the following dimensions: Width 5 feet, height from finished floor 11 feet 11 inches. Use the short method explained in Fig. 3. (Leave all construction lines.)
12. How is the brilliancy and snap of drawings increased?
General Remarks. Whatman's cold pressed paper is the best for these examination plates. The Imperial size is 22 in. X 30 in., and one of these sheets will cut into two sheets 15 in. X 22 in., which will be large enough for all of the examination plates. The lines are to be inked with India ink, after which the drawing is to be washed before rendering. The lines must be drawn very neatly and carefully.
Before starting to render, small pencil sketches should be made to study the relations of the lights and shadows and to determine their values. The student will find that with the aid of such pencil sketches, he can render with greater accuracy, and will obtain quicker and better results.
The shadows in plates C to E are indicated by dotted lines. In the finished drawings, these should be shown in fine light full pencil lines.
In fastening the paper to the board, care must be taken not to allow the paste to extend more than half an inch back from the edge of the paper.
Be sure to write your name and address legibly on the back of each drawing.
Rectangle A, with a light even wash similar in tone to "High Light" in the value scale: Rectangle B, with a medium even wash similar to "Middle": Rectangle C, with a very dark even wash similar in tone to "Dark": Rectangle D has various compartments which are to be rendered with an even wash having the same tone in each compartment similar to " Low Light": Rectangle E, with a medium even wash similar to "Middle", leaving the four enclosed spaces " White":
Rectangle F, with alternating dark and medium stripes, the first, third, fifth and seventh stripe to be dark, similar to "High Dark", the others light similar to "Low Light":
Rectangle G has various strips which are to be graded evenly, the top strip being the darkest, the next one a little lighter and so on until the last strip is very light in tone. The successive values of the strips should be "Dark", "High Dark", "Middle", "Low Light", "Light" and "High Light":
Rectangle H, with a graded wash varying from dark at the top to light at the bottom. Care should be taken to have the wash evenly graded. The dark should be similar in value to " High Dark" and the light similar to " Low Light":
Rectangle I, with a graded wash varying from light at the top to dark at the bottom. In rendering this rectangle the board should not be turned around and the wash put on by grading from light to dark, but the board should be left in the same position and the wash graded by the admixture of color instead of water. The light should be similar to " Light" and the dark similar to "Middle":
Rectangle J, with a graded wash varying from dark to light, the spaces between the two halves of the rectangle being left "White". The dark is similar to " Middle" and the light similar to " Light".
RESIDENCE OF MR. WARREN HICKOX, KANKAKEE, ILL. Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111. Built in 1902.
RESIDENCE OF MR. W. H. WINSLOW, RIVER FOREST, ILL.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111.
The Value Scale is given merely to show the relative degrees of darkness, not to show the actual appearance of the wash. The wash itself must be perfectly clear and transparent.
Note. The various values should not be made in one wash. Better effects are obtained by superimposing several light washes and thus obtaining a dark wash, than by putting on a dark wash in one operation.