15. Make out a bill of material for the head of the column shown by Fig. 127; scene measurements, assuming drawing to be made to a scale of one inch equal to one foot.

16. For what combinations of loading should roof trusses be designed?

17. State the three types of foundations, and describe each.

18. State some of the features which should be considered in designing a truss, and which affect the weight.

Review Questions On The Subject Of Steel Construction. Part III

1. Describe the following pieces and state their uses: (a): fitting-up bolts; (b),drift pins; (c) clevis nuts; (d) sleeve nuts; (e) turnbuckles; (f) upset rods.

2. Give the Carnegie code of conventional signs for rivet-ing.

3. Determine the shearing and bearing value of a 7/8-in. rivet on a web 1/2 in. thick for both shop and field rivets.

4. In Fig. 199, determine the number of rivets actually required for the connection of No. 11 to No. 9, and for No. 9 to No. 12. Determine the load by the full capacity of beams as loaded.

5. State the minimum spans for which standard connections can be used on an 8-in., 12-in., and 15-in. beam loaded uniformly.

6. Make a shop detail of a cast-iron base with ribs, for column No. 2 shown in Fig. 226. Base to be 3 ft. X 3 ft. on the bottom and 15 in. high.

7. Make a shop detail of a lintel carrying a 16-in. wall, and composed of two 10-in. 15-lb. channels and one 10-in. beam, the clear opening being 7 ft. and the channel to be placed flush with the faces of the wall.

8. Make a shop detail of column No. 1 in Fig. 199. Length from top of cast-iron base-plate to finished floor 12 ft, 6 in. Base-plate to be 20 X 20 X 2 in., similar to that shown in Fig. 109, Part II.

9. Make a shop detail of beam No. 11 in Fig. 199.

10. Make a shop detail of beam No. 2, shown in Fig. 94. Part II. Use scale to find dimensions.

11. Make a shop setting-plan of framing shown in Fig. 43A, Part I, from the wall line at the bottom of the figure, including the first line of columns. Use scale to determine dimensions, and calculate size of beams for a total load of 175 pounds per square foot.

12. Make shop detail of one of the beams between the wall and the interior columns on above plan.

13. Make shop detail of one of the beams between the girders on the above plan,

14. Make shop detail of one of the girders between the interior columns in the above plan.

15. Make shop detail of beam No. 2 in Fig. 226.

16. Make shop detail of beam No. 15 in Fig. 226.

17. Make shop detail and bill of material of column No. 2 in Fig. 226, the length from top of base-plate to finished floor being 14 ft. 6 in.

18. Make a shop detail of column No. 2, Fig. 199, assuming 2 X x 5/16-in lacing bars to be used instead of the web plate. Length from top of base to finished floor to be 13 ft.

19. Make schedule of field rivets for all connections shown in Fig. 199.

20. Make schedule of field bolts for all connections in Fig. 199

Review Questions On The Subject Of Steel Construction. Part IV

1. Name the component parts of a plate girder and state the functions of each part.

2. Give allowable fiber strains for compression, tension, and shearing in building work.

3. Design the section of a single-weo plate giroer to carry a safe load of 160,000 pounds, uniformly distributed on a span of 30 feet center to center. Neglect the proportion of bending moment carried by the web and proportion both flanges alike for the total bending moment. Design on the basis of stiffeners to prevent the web buckling, and use a web 36 inches deep.

4. Design the section of a two-web plate girder to carry a safe load of 400,000 pounds on a span of 36 feet clear between walls; this load to be concentrated at five points equally distant between the wall faces. Determine proper wall bearing and bed plate for a brick wall laid in cement mortar. Use webs 42 inches deep, and flange plates 20 inches wide. Assume the distance between centers of gravity of flanges as 42 inches and proportion flanges for total bending moment. Use a web thick enough to prevent buckling without stiffeners. Determine the length of all plates.

5. In the above girder determine the actual centers of gravity of the flanges with the section chosen, and on the basis of this distance between centers of gravity, determine the actual bending moment and the total load the girder is capable of safely carrying.

6. In the girder of problem 3, determine the pitch of rivets through the web and angles, and through angles and cover plates; (a) by approximate methods, (b) by exact formula. State any modification of results necessary.

7. In the girder of problem 5 determine the rivet pitches for both horizontal and vertical rivets using (a) approximate methods and (b) exact formula. State any modification of results necessary.

8. Make a complete shop detail of the girder designed under problem 3, and give bill of material.

9. Make a complete shop detail of the girder designed under problem 5. Arrange for 15-inch beams to frame in each side of the girder at the position of concentrated loads, the tops of these beams being 1 1/2 inches below the back of top flange angles; the beams to rest on bracket angles, with suitable shear angles and a side connection angle riveted to girder. Splice the web at a convenient point near the center.

10. Give the conditions of equilibrium for statically determined trusses.

11. Given a truss with parallel top and bottom chords, 50 feet long center to center of bearings, of the type shown in Fig. 272, with ten panels, and loaded with 1000 pounds per lineal foot on the top chord. Assume the distance center to center of chords as 6 feet and make a strain sheet giving stresses and sizes suitable for each member. Note that top chord is subjected to bending. Assume the top chord braced at the center and midway between the center and the walls. Denote by proper signs the compression and tension stresses.

12. Explain the difference between internal, or inner, forces and external forces.

13. Redesign the truss of problem 11, on the basis of a ceiling load of 300 pounds per lineal foot of truss, in addition to the load on the top chord. The ceiling joists are assumed as resting directly on the bottom chord.

14. Given a truss 60 feet long center to center of bearings, and loaded with a total load of 180,000 pounds concentrated at panel points 7 feet 6 inches on center. Design sections of top and bottom chords so that distance out to out of chords will be 8 feet, and use a section similar to that of Fig. 275. The top chord is to be stiffened at the center and the ends only. Use actual centers of gravity and moments of inertia in designing.

15. Make a shop detail of the truss designed in problem 13.