Consider, for example, two windows, one in direct elevation and the other projected at an angle. It is evident that the direct elevation permits the study of proportions and it is evident also that the oblique projection shows more than the direct elevation of the different parts of the window. In the same manner draw out the development of such parts of buildings as vaultings, circular walls, etc.

All this can be summed up thus: Study architectural drawing as an architect. Become accustomed to see in the drawing the object represented. It is very necessary that the drawing should be nothing more for the designer than a sort of language, and that he should see in reality the thing itself, just as a composer of music, as he puts down on paper the notes of his score, can hear them as though they were being played; just as everyone in reading a book of printed characters never notices the printed letters but feels the emotions that are meant to be conveyed as though the words were spoken.

Modeling an Architectural Drawing. A design is only complete when in addition to the outlines, it is modeled, that is to say when the form is expressed. The most common process for modeling an architectural design is by wash drawing, but the methods of modeling are the same whether done by wash drawing or by rendering with the pen, the pencil, or other processes. It is not possible to say that modeling has absolute rules, or that all methods are good even if the desired effect is obtained; i.e., if the reliefs and the forms are represented in their true relations to one another. There are, however, certain general principles that can be used as a guide in modeling a drawing.

Shadows at 45 Degrees. It is the custom to assume that the light rays fall in a direction, the horizontal and vertical projections of which make an angle of 45 degrees with the line of the ground. The luminous ray itself does not make, in reality, an angle of 45 degrees with the planes of projection. Its direction is that of the diagonal of a cube whose faces are respectively parallel and perpendicular to the planes of projection.

This method has two advantages; the laying out is easier, which it is well to consider, for the drawing of shadows is often a long and complicated process, and in this case the depth of the shadows is equal to the projections. Consequently, the size of the shadows permits anyone to understand, without further drawings, the projection of one architectural body in relation to another, and the relative positions in space of the different surfaces in one body.

RESIDENCE OF MRS. R. D. LAWRENCE, SPRINGFIELD, ILL.

RESIDENCE OF MRS. R. D. LAWRENCE, SPRINGFIELD, ILL.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111. Building Completed in 1903. For Views of Entrance and Studio, See Page 234. Winter View Shown on Opposite Page.

WINTER VIEW OF RESIDENCE OF MRS. R. D. LAWRENCE, SPRINGFIELD, ILL.

WINTER VIEW OF RESIDENCE OF MRS. R. D. LAWRENCE, SPRINGFIELD, ILL.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111.

Summer View Shown on Opposite Page. For Entrance and Studio, See Page 234. Building Completed in 1903.

DETAIL FROM TEMPLE OF MARS VENGEUR. An example of classic lettering, conventional shadows and rendering.

DETAIL FROM TEMPLE OF MARS VENGEUR. An example of classic lettering, conventional shadows and rendering.

Reproduced by permission of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The drawing of shadows is often difficult; it is one of the essential parts of descriptive geometry that will also he found in special treatises. As for indicating shadows which cannot he laid out accurately, such as shadows of decorative parts, it is a matter of judgment to determine the amount of projection - a knowledge gained by experience.

Values. After having drawn the shadows, lay over the shadow part a uniform tint. Now the drawing will be seen to be divided into lights and shadows.

As a first principle, it is necessary always to make a distinction between light and shade; shadows will always be modeled, lights will also always be modeled; but it is necessary to be able to distinguish clearly which is light and which is shade in the same drawing, at least where there are large spaces between different planes. The parts having the darkest tint in the light should remain lighter than the lightest reflected lights of the parts in shadow. Besides this, geometrical design, not being able to make use of the illusions of perspective to show distances and projections, has to make use of expressive modeling, since it is the values of the tints alone which will indicate the relative distances and projections.

Therefore, in order to bring forward or to set back one plane with relation to another, the only resource will be to tint them differ-ently. Notice what happens in this respect in nature; for instance, an object placed near the eye is modeled very clearly and one at some distance is modeled much less, and one at a great distance or on the horizon, is only a mass without details. So, the nearer the object is, the more it is modeled and the greater are the differences between the shadows and the lights; on the contrary, the further away it is the more the lights and shadows tend to mingle. In the foreground there will be strong shadows and high lights, in the distance dull shadows and softened lights; between these an intermediate proportion of shadows and lights. Therefore, in facade, the planes farthest away from the eye will have the least modeling, while the nearer the plane is to the eye, the more is the modeling accented.

As stated above, in nature every light and every shade is modeled and graded; the shadows are more noticeably graded than the lights. The reason for this gradation of shadows is the indirect lighting thrown back on the shaded objects by neighboring lighted objects, and this is called reflected light.