This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Figs. 5 and 7 are varieties of the Greek anthemion or honeysuckle pattern, one of the most subtle and perfect of all ornamental forms. Observe in Fig. 5 the quality of the curves-the contrast of full rounded parts with long curves almost straight which characterize the Egyptian lotus. Note in both examples that there is a regular ratio of increase both in the size of the lobes and in the spaces between each, from the lowest one up to the center. It is invariably the rule that each lobe shall be continued to the base without touching its neighbor.
This plate is to contain nine outline drawings illustrating Rules 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20. The drawings may be made and corrected on the slate and then copied on to the paper or they may be drawn directly on the paper. They may be from the models or from simple geometric objects such as boxes, blocks, cups, pans, plates, spools, flower pots, bottles, etc.
These are characteristic forms of Greek vases. Fig. 1, the Lechythos, was used to hold oil, Fig. 2, the Kantheros, is one form of the drinking cup, and Fig. 3, the Hydria, for pouring water.
Note. This plate and all succeeding ones are to be surrounded by a border line, drawn freehand one inch from the edge of the paper.
PLATE II. Typical Egyptian, Assyrian and Greek Motives.
The drawing of these vases includes a great variety of beautiful curves. They are to be'executed entirely in outline, and both contours and bands of ornament and the relative sizes of each are to be preserved.
Calculate the heights so that the bases shall each be one inch from above the border line and the upper point of Fig. 3 about one inch below the border line. In sketching them in, first place a construction line to represent the central axis. Across this, sketch the outlines of the horizontal bands and then sketch the contours, following the general directions given in Sections 21 and 25. Remember that lines are to be drawn lightly and corrections made by new lines and not by erasures. Use the arm movement as much as possible in drawing the curves. Before executing the examination paper, practice drawing each vase entirely without corrections of the lines.
Fig. 1 is from the pavement in the Baptistery at Florence and is in the style called Tuscan Romanesque, The pointed acanthus leaves in the small border at the top, are identical in character with the Byzantine acanthus.
This drawing is to be treated like a sketch made from the object. After sketching in the pattern and correcting in the usual way by drawing new lines, erase superfluous lines and strengthen the outlines by lines made with one stroke. The final outline should, however, be loose and free in character and express the somewhat roughened edges of the pattern in white. This does not mean that the direction of the line must vary enough to distort any shapes. Observe that most of the shapes appear to be perfectly symmetrical only their edges seem slightly softened and broken. Fill in the background with a tone equal to the dark (D) of the value scale. Make this tone by upright lines nearly touching each other and if the value is too light at first, go over them again by lines in the same direction. If a background line occasionally runs over the outline, it will help to produce the effect of the original.
Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5 comprise typical forms of Greek decorated mouldings. The examples have much the character of a working drawing and the plates are to be enlarged copies, but instead of fol-lowing the character of the light and shade of the original, the shadows are to be executed by upright lines. (See Section 35.) The darker shadows arc to be the value of dark (D) of the scale, the lighter ones the value of middle (M).
PLATE IV. FIG. 1. The Lechythos. Typical Greek Vase Used to Hold Oil.
PLATE IV. FIG. 2 The Kantheros. Typical Greek Vase Used for a Drinking Cup.
PLATE IV. FIG 3. The Hydria. Typical Greek Vase Used for Pouring Water.
PLATE V. FIG. 1. Pavement from the Baptistery, Florence.
FIG. 3. PLATE V. Typical Forms of Greek Decorated Mouldings.
FIG. 5. PLATE V. Typical Forms of Greek Decorated Mouldings.
Place these drawings so that there will be at least an inch between them and about half an inch between the border line and the top and bottom.
Fig. 1 is from a drawing of a wrought iron grille in a church in Prague. Some idea of the shape of the pieces of iron is conveyed by the occasional lines of shading. The pattern will be seen to be disposed on radii dividing the circle into sixths. Construct the skeleton of the pattern shown, establishing first an equilateral triangle and the lines which subdivide its angles and sides. About this draw the inner line of the circle and extend the lines which subdivide the angles of the triangles, to form the six radii of the circle. Complete the outlines of the pattern before drawing the shading lines. This drawing with its lines and curves all carefully perfected represents the kind of working drawing which an architect might give to an iron-smith to work with, although in a working drawing, a section of the iron would be given and each motive of the design would propably be drawn out only once and then as it was repeated it would be merely indicated by a line or two sketched in.