This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
All these pigments may be adulterated with barytes, or with terra alba (sulphate of lime), sometimes with whiting (carbonate of lime). These adulterants are powdered minerals. Barytes is a good pigment, so far as protective action goes; and terra alba is thought by some good authorities to be unobjectionable; but whiting is injurious. All of them are transparent in oil, and lessen the opacity or whitening power of the paint.
From these white paints, colored paints are made by adding tinting colors, of which the yellow is chiefly chrome yellow, or chromate of lead; the blue may be either ultramarine or prussian blue; and the green is chrome green, a mixture of chrome yellow and prussian blue. The reds are (in house paints) made from coal-tar colors, and most of them are now fairly fast to light. Some dull yellow colors are made from ochers, which are clays tinted with iron oxides, roasted and ground. These are permanent colors.
The dark-colored paints may not contain lead or zinc at all. The deep yellows, greens, and blues are made from the colors already named as tinting colors, none of which are entirely fast to light; the dark reds and browns are chiefly iron oxides, which are a valuable class of paints, very permanent on wood. The blacks are either lampblack or drop-black (bone-black) and other carbon colors; and these are often added in small quantity to secure some desired tone or shade of color.
The zinc and lead pigments have some action on oil, and in their case it is considered the best practice to apply thin coats; but the dark pigments do not act on oil, and, of these, thick coats are best for durability.