This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
This difference is well contrasted in Plate LI I, where an early example (the one used on the Temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens) and one of the late Orders (that of the Temple of Saturn at Rome) are both shown together. The first is partly Greek, and therefore restrained in its design; the last, wholly Roman and therefore over-florid in its ornamentation.
Vignola's Corinthian Order. The Order shown in Fig. 132 is the version of Roman Corinthian given by Vignola, and, while founded on old examples, it actually dates from the period of the Renaissance. To this same time also belongs the example shown in Plate LV, displaying the method of construction.
Vignola's example of the Corinthian Order is supposed to be derived from the various monuments in Rome, and particularly from the circular Temple of the Pantheon, and from three columns which are still standing to-day in the Roman Forum. After having compared all their details and proportions, he established a rule which, without materially differing from the ancient forms, gives such a relation that a modillion always occurs on the axis of the column; and the eggs-anddarts, dentils, and other moulding ornamentations also correspond in axis with the columns, as may be found by drawing out this Order with the measurements given. The base of this column is similar to that already shown in the Ionic example, Plate XIII, Part I; both being derived from the Greek Attic base, but the Corinthian base is more subtly moulded and generally includes one or two members more than the Ionic. In both these bases the members are round in plan, and end in a torus resting upon a plain plinth, square in plan and rectangular in elevation.
Roman Corinthian Columns from Temple of Castor and Pollux In the Forum, Rome.
The pedestal of this Order is sufficiently well explained in the plate itself, but it may again be repeated that the pedestal is not so much an authentic part of the Roman Order as it is a creation of the Renaissance. On this plate the pedestal is shown with a necking which cannot be considered as an invariable adjunct to its use with the Roman Order. The capital itself, in this example, may be criticised not only for lack of refinement in the treatment of the foliage, and over-luxuriance in the method of its application, but also for a certain clumsiness directly attributed to the thickness through the capital being greater than the diameter at the neck of the column, and to the fact that the foliage has a tendency to swell out too rapidly, making too great a contrast with the slender outline dimensions of the shaft below. This tendency has been corrected in later work, although indeed it does not show at all in the Greek capitals; and to-day one of the surest characteristics of the best Colonial work is that this Corinthian capital is carried up with the leaves held back and restrained to follow the plane of the column below for some distance, curving out only at the top, below the volute and smaller cauliculi. The abacus of the Order is hollowed out on the four sides and moulded as in the Greek form.
The entablature of this Order is essentially different from that of any that we have heretofore seen, and may be considered as being more distinctly Roman than any other detail of the Corinthian Order. The architrave is divided into three fascias or bands, separated by a small moulding, generally ornamented. Indeed, even the plane faces of the bands themselves are sometimes elaborately carved. The frieze is often carved profusely in high relief. The cornice includes the mouldings of the Ionic dentiled bed-mould, with the addition of a series of brackets or modillions (Fig. 133) quite different from the mutules of the Greeks, but evidently suggested by them, although they incorporate, in part, the leaf and volute treatment of the Corinthian capital. The space between these modillions was filled by elaborately carved panels, and the whole crowned by the usual crowning members of the cornice, again ornamented on every possible surface. The round mouldings of the base of the column and the mouldings of the base and cap of the pedestal in the Corinthian and Composite Roman Orders, are also often heavily enriched by carving.
PLATE LV. (A reproduction at small .size of Portfolio Plate LV).
Corinthian Columns. From the Temple of Jupiter, Baalbec, Syria.
The subdivisions and proportions of members composing this entablature and its architrave, frieze, and cornice, are shown in particular in Fig. 132. The lion's head carved on the upper member and coming over the modillion, is sometimes an object of decoration merely, but often serves as a spout for the discharge of rain-water gathered on the roof, and was evidently adapted from a similar ornament employed by the Greeks. These spouts are united by a gutter cut in the upper member of the cornice at the back of its face, in which case the open mouths in the heads are furnished with a piece of tile through which the water from the roof escapes.