This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 71. Capital from Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, Miletus.
Remains of Corinthian Temple of Zeus, Athens. With distant view of the Acropolis.
Fig. 73. Tower of the Winds, Athens.
Tower of the Winds. The curious specimen of the Corinthian Order offered by the variation used on the Tower of the Winds at Athens (Fig. 72), is well worthy of study. The column, while of the three examples just mentioned the latest in date, is still the crudest in form, the other two being much more refined and graceful in type. In entasis, and in treatment of shaft and base, it follows very closely the Greek Doric method, beginning to taper from the start, as is elsewhere more fully shown in describing the entasis of that Order, and with the flutes running directly down into the platform on which it is set; but the shaft is itself more slender, being eight and one-quarter diameters in height, including the capital. Besides the column shown in Plate XLVIII, a perspective of the capital is shown in Fig. 73, while the interesting acanthus leaf embellishing it is drawn out at a larger scale in Fig. 69. Fig. 74 displays the entire tower, along with the unusual porch usage of the columns, the first Classic instance of their employment after this modern fashion. Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. The details given in Plate XLIX are taken from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates at Athens, an example of the purest Greek art, and the most interesting which we can find of a Corinthian order employed on an exterior.
Fig. 73. Corinthian Capital from Tower of the Winds.
FINE ARTS BUILDING OF THE COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION OF 1893, NOW THE FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM, JACKSON PARK, CHICAGO, ILL.
Burnham & Root, Architects; Chas. B. Atwood, Designer.
SUPREME COURT BUILDING AT SPRINGFIELD, ILL.
Fig. 74. Restoration of Tower of the "Winds, Athens.
Fig.75. Choragic Monument of Lyslcrates, Athens, Restored,.
The circular monument which we call the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates is better displayed in its entirety in Figs. 75 and 76. There are three steps, each of very slight projection, at the base of this monument, in addition to those shown. This may hardly be considered as a wholly satisfactory instance of the Greek use of the Corinthian Order, although it is the most perfect extant example. However, the columns-attached as they are to a blank wall, more after the fashion which the Romans afterward adopted in their Orders-the circular plan, and the small scale-the tower itself being only about seven feet in diameter-render it very imperfect for our purpose, considering it from any standpoint. The details of this monument are better shown in Plate XLIX, where the detail of the capital may be studied with more particularity. The entablature follows closely the type shown in Fig. 50, and includes a course of dentils, but lacks the crowning cymatium of the Order Plate, its place being taken by a course of acroteria, forming a "chencau" or cresting around the top of the crowning member. The three fascias or faces of the architrave, as shown on the corner, are treated in a rather suggestive and unusual fashion. The beautiful and richly foliated crowning ornament of the monument is shown on this plate at a larger size, while the graceful acanthus ornament flowing down the roof and leading up to this central feature is shown in direct elevation as well as in plan and section. The "running dog" or wave ornament placed on the roof above and inside of the course of acroteria, is also shown in detail.
Fig. 76. Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.
This monument was probably crowned with the emblematic tripod of the Choragus, executed in metal (the tripod is repeated in the wall frieze), and with one or two human figures, while the entablature frieze was ornamented in the fashion shown in the restoration (Fig. 77). The column in the Monument of Lysicrates has twenty-four flutes; its height is about eleven and one-half feet, and it is a little more than ten times its diameter, the capital being one and two-tenths diameters in height. The entablature is a little less than one-fifth the total height of this Order, while the base in this particular example is evidently so much influenced by its connection with the blank wall behind, that it can hardly be considered as typical, although it varies but little from that shown in the Corinthian Order Plate. The column is set upon a continuous base or step with a moulded, retreating face which is evidently intended to offset the projection of the belt course beneath. The shaft of this column is tapered more nearly after the Roman fashion, inasmuch as, before the entasis begins, it is straight for some distance above the base moulding.