This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Both styles of Doric architraves are twenty-seven parts in height, of which four are given to the listel.
The lower band of the mutular Doric architrave is nine parts in height; the height of the guttae is three, of the reglet or "taenia" one. The denticular style has but one projection, that of the listel, which is three. The rnutular has a projection of four, because of the added projection of the second fascia which is one. The guttae are spaced four parts from center to center; their lower width is three and the upper width two. The face of the taenia is parallel to the slope of the guttae. The projection of the guttae from the face of the architrave is 2.5 on the bottom, and two at the top.
56. The frieze of the Doric Order is thirty-six parts in height and is distinguished by its triglyphs, which are apparently the extremities of beams, forming on the frieze a slight projection of two parts, and spaced at regular intervals. The name comes from the triangular channels with which they are ornamented. The detail of this ornament as well as of the dependant guttae is clearly shown in Fig. 7.
LA SAINTE-CHAPELLE, PARIS, FRANCE.
Built in 1245-1248. The Building Consists of Two Superposed Chapels. The Lower Chapel was for the Servants of the Court; the Upper Chapel was for the Royal Family. Restored by Violet-le-Duo.
ENTRANCE TO THE "GALLERIA UMBERTO I." IN NAPLES, ITALY.
Ernesto de Mauro, Architect. Built in 1887-90.
(A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate IV.)
57. The cornice of the denticular Doric Order is thirty-seven parts in height and its projection is forty. It is composed first, of a band four parts in height and one in projection, forming a slight projection of .5 over each triglyph; second, a cyma-reversa of three in height and 2.5 in projection, placed with a projection of five-tenths over the head of the triglyph; third, a band six in height and five-tenths in projection over the cyma-reversa; against this band are placed small blocks, five parts in height and four in width, with a space of two between them, which are called dentils; fourth, a corona eleven parts in height comprising two fillets, of one part each which are seen in profile on the section AA and which, with the drip, are intended to carry off the rain water; fifth, a cymareversa of L.8 surmounted by a fillet of 1.2 and the whole projecting 2.2; sixth, a cavetto of six, and six in projection; seventh, a list el of four crowning the cavetto.
58. The two sections show that the dentils are surmounted under the corona by a cavetto of two in height, having a projection of two in which is included the offsetting projection of .5. This cavetto causes the soffit or lower face of the corona to be inclined two parts. This soffit is divided into panels of various forms corresponding to the divisions of the frieze, as will be seen in Fig. 9. Those panels which correspond to the triglyphs are ornamented by round guttae, the position of which is determined by the edges of the channels. The guttae are three parts in diameter at the lower face and two at their summit; they are one in height and are placed in three rows spaced four from center to center. The other panels are divided into lozenges and triangles and are sometimes ornamented with rosettes or other devices.
59. The frieze of the inutu-lar order is distinguished only by a slight difference in the channels of the triglyph. The channels on the edges are eased off into a curve at the top, while the others form re-entering angles.
The cornice is noticeable for the projecting blocks which depend from the corona and which are called mutules (Fig. 8). This cornice (Plate V) has the same height as the preceding one (Plate IV), but it differs in its projection, which is forty-two. The height is divided in the following manner: the band above the triglyph four, the fillet 1.5, the quarter round three and five-tenths, mutules six and five-tenths, cyma-reversa one and five-tenths, the corona eight, cyma-reversa one and eight-tenths, fillet one and two-tenths, cyma-recta six, and the listel three. The projection is divided as follows: the thickness of the triglyph two, band and listel one, quarter-round three and five-tenths, the fascia five-tenths, mutules twenty-four and five-tenths, corona two and five-tenths, fillet projection with cyma reversa two, and the cyma-recta six.
PLATE V. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate V.)
The mutules have a face five and five-tenths in height and form a profile composed of a square of one, a drip of one and five-tenths, and a reglet of two. The lower face of the mutules in Plate V is decorated with five rows of guttae, six in a row. As the mutules correspond in their position and in their width to the triglyphs, so the divisions of the guttae correspond with the edges of the channels of the triglyphs.
60. In the Doric Order the axes of columns and pilasters always correspond to the axes of the triglyphs above them. The upper semi-diameter of the column being twenty-two, the axis of the first triglyph is placed at twenty-two from the angle. The triglyphs are twenty-four in width, and the spaces which separate them are thirty-six. These spaces are exactly square, having a width equal to the height of the frieze, and are called "metopes." The mutules are of the same width as the triglyphs, twenty-four, and are placed on the same axes. Sometimes the metopes are decorated with objects of sculpture whose character is suggested by the character of the edifice. (Plates VIII and IX.)
61. The under part of the corona, or "soffit1' of the Doric cornice is divided like the frieze, its divisions corresponding to the triglyphs and the metopes, as we have already seen. The arrangement of the soffit at the angle must be carefully observed:-in the denticular cornice, Fig. 9, there is included in the corner a division which corresponds to the width of the metope: first, a division of five; second, a division of 13; third, another division of five; and finally-at the angle-a square of twelve and a fillet of one. These parts are decorated with panels where sometimes are placed rosettes, winged thunder bolts, or other ornaments in accordance with the character of the edifice. In the soffit of the mutular cornice (Plate IX) there is at the angle a square of twenty-three and five-tenths, decorated with a panel which may be filled with sculpture, such as the winged thunder-bolt. The space between this panel and the mutule is ornamented with lozenge shaped panel, in which is a rosette.
62. The cymatium or cap of the pedestal (Plate VI) is fourteen parts high, of which the divisions are: a fillet of one, quarter-round of three, corona of seven, and listel of three. Its projection is nine, of which four is the projection of the conge and quarter-round, three and five-tenths of the corona, and one and five-tenths of the listel.
The base of the pedestal is forty-five in height, divided among a first plinth twenty-five, second plinth ten, listel three, cyma-reversa five, and fillet two. The projection of the base is eight, of which one is for the first plinth, one for the second plinth, four for the cyma-reversa, and two for the conge The die of the pedestal is eighty-one parts high and its sides are in plane with the faces of the plinth of the column base.
63. The impost is twenty-five in height; it is composed of an astragal of three, a necking of seven, a fillet of one, a quarter-round of three, a corona of eight, and a listel of three.
The projection of the impost is eight; for the quarter-round and fillet four, for the corona two and five-tenths, and for the listel one and five-tenths. The astragal projects two. The archivolt is thirty in height; it is composed of a first band nine, second band eleven and five-tenths, fillet one and five-tenths, quarter-round four, and listel four.
PLATE VI. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate VI.)
PLATE VII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate VII.)
The projection of the archivolt is six; secondhand one, fillet one, quarter round three and five-tenths, and listel five-tenths.
64. The width of the Doric pilaster in proportion to the column is shown in Fig. 10. The lower diameter of the Doric column being fifty and its upper diameter forty-four, the difference is six, which is divided into three equal parts, of which one is taken for the difference in width between the neck and base of the pilaster, forty-eight being the width at the base and forty-six at the bottom of the cap.
The difference of projection of the bases is made up in the conge which projects two for the column and three for the pilaster.
The difference in the projection of the caps is made up in the three annulets and the quarter-round of the denticular capital and in the astragal and quarter round of the mutular capital.