Scipto (sip'i-o). The name of several Roman generals whose Tombs near the Appian Way are well known. (See Fig. 108).

Scotia (sko'ti-a). A concave moulding, as between the fillets in the base of the Doric column; used especially beneath the level of the eye. (Soc Fig. 5).

Screen (skren). Any wall or construction, permanent or temporary, which covers or protects a portion of a building, room, or other space from direct observation. A meshwork placed in a frame to protect a portion of a building, or an opening, from the entrance of insects. (See Plate LVIII).

Segesta (se-jes'ta). A town in the northwestern part of Sicily, containing some very beautiful Greek architectural ruins, especially that of a Doric temple of the 6th century B. C.

Segmental (seg-men'tal). Relating to or being a segment or part of a thing.

Selinus (se-li'nus). A town in southwestern Sicily, celebrated for the ruins of the Temple of Zeus. Septimius Severus (sep-tim'i-us se-ve'rus). A Roman emperor, 193-211 A. D., in whose honor was erected a triple archway with Composite columns He died at York, England.

Serlio (ser'le-o), Sebastiano. An Italian architect and writer living during the time of the Renaissance. He designed a considerable number of buildings in France.

Shaft (shaft). That part of the column extending from the capital to the base. (See Figs. 3 and 61).

Sill (sil). The horizontal member at the bottom of a door or window (see Fig. 84); a piece of timber or stone on which a structure rests. (See Fig. 84).

Soffit (sof'it). Ceiling; applied to the under side of arches and of other architectural members. (See Figs. 9 and 14).

Spandrel (span'drel). The triangular space comprehended between the outer curve of an arch, a horizontal line through its apex, and a vertical line through its spring; also, the wall-space between the outer mouldings of two arches and a horizontal line or stringcourse above them, or between these outer mouldings and the intrados of another arch rising above and inclosing the two. (See Fig. 4).

Spiny (spl'ni). Pointed; sharply serrated; referring to certain forms of the Greek acanthus. (See Figs. 69 and 73, and Plate XLIX).

Stadium (sta'di-um). A largo, rectangular .space with a rounded end, and open to the sky; it was intended for races, contests, and spectacles of various kinds, and surrounded by tiers of scats for spectators.

Staves (stavz). The supports or stems holding up ornamental portions of the leafage on the Corinthian and Composite capitals. (See Plate XVI).

Stele (stele). A headstone or funeral monument used by the Greeks, generally ending with a crowning or cresting ornament including the akroter in some of its several forms. (See Fig. 86)

Stoa (sto'a). A portico, usually a sheltered portico and often of considerable extent, conveniently located near a public place and intended to afford opportunity for walking or conversation.

Stringcourse (string'kors). A belt or continuous band of mouldings extending across the facade of a building. (See Fig. 2).

Structure (struk'tur). A building of any kind.

Stylobate (sti'16-bat). The platform -generally consisting of three steps, the upper forming the floor of the corridor or colonnade around the building:--upon which the Classic Greek building or the columns of its surrounding colonnade rest. (See Plate XXXV and Fig. 45).

Supercolumniation (su'per-ko-lum-ni-a'shon). The superposition of columns; the placing of one Order above another. (See Figs. 23 and 24).

Superimposed (su'per-im-pozd'). Laid on or added above something else, as one Order placed on top of another. (See Figs. 23 and 24).

Superincumbent (su'pcr-in-kum'bent). Lying or resting on something else.

Superposition (su'per-po-si'shon). Placing one thing above another, as the use of a lighter Order for the second story of a building, placed above a heavier Order used for the first story. (See Figs. 21, 22, 23, and 24).

Support (sup-port'). A prop.

Swell (swel). Belly; referring/to the slight increase in the size of the column between the base and the neck. (See Fig. 61).

Systyle (sis'til). Having columns which stand two diameters apart, or three diameters on centers. (See Fig. 19).

T

Tabularium (tab-u-lar'i-um). An early Roman building backing the Senate, and consisting of a tall wall crowned with a colonnade placed against an arcade in the characteristic Roman fashion. The first example of this usage of which we know. It dates from about 78 B. C.

Taenia (te'ni-a). A fillet surmounting the Doric architrave. (See Fig. 7 and Plate IX).

Taper (ta'per). The gradual diminution or reduction in size of an object-especially a column-towards its end or top. (See Fig. 87).

Tetrastyle (tet'ra-stll). Having or consisting of four columns. (See Plate XXXIII).

Theseum (the-se'um). A temple to the Athenian hero, Theseus; especially a certain Doric temple built in Athens which is one of the three most perfect surviving Greek temples. (See Fig. 51).

Tholos (tho'los) or Tholus (tho'lus). A circular building; a domed structure; e. g., the Tholos at Epidauros. (See Fig. 78 and Plate L).

Titus (ti'tus). Roman emperor, 79-81 A. D. He captured Jerusalem (70 A. D.) during the reign of his father Vespasian. The Arch of Titus in Rome was erected in commemoration of this event. (See Fig. 134).

Tivoli (tev'o-le). A town near Rome celebrated for its circular temple of Vesta, showing an excellent example of the Roman Corinthian Order. (See Fig. 130).

Torus (to'rus). The large, convex moulding of semicircular profile used generally as the lowest member, and just above the plinth-when it is employed-of the column base. (See Fig. 5).

Trajan (tra'jan). Roman emperor, 98-117 A. D. Famous for his wars against the Dacians and Parthians. Triumphal arches in Ins honor were erected at Rome and Ancona. (See Fig. 137).

Triglyph (tri'glif). A decorative ornament occurring at regular intervals in the frieze of the Greek Doric Order, and bearing perpendicular incisions or channels upon its surface. (See Fig. 7).

Tumble-home (tum'bl-hom). Strictly, a nautical term referring to the tapering or sloping in of the sides of a vessel as they near the top of the boat; used in this connection as referring to a similar sloping-in of a column or building toward its top. (See Figs. 35 and 36).

Tuscan (tus'kan). The simplest of the five Roman Orders of architecture, supposedly derived by the Romans from a combination of the Greek Doric with the local Etruscan columnar architecture. (See Fig. 6).

Tympanum (tim'pa-num). The triangular area surrounded by the cornices of a pediment. (See Fig. 20).

Type (tip). The original model or kind which becomes the subject of copy; the mark or impression of something bearing a definite and unmistakable stamp; belonging to a special sort or family.

U

Undercut (un-der-kuf). In mouldings, having a section which overhangs, giving a deep hollow or dark shadow beneath. (See M, Fig. 46).

V

Vanishing point (van'ish-ing point). An imaginary point towards which the horizontal lines of a building appear to converge.

Vault (vault). An arching structure of masonry, brick, or woodwork, forming a canopy, cover, or ceiling. (See Figs. 26 and 27.) Vertical (ver'ti-kal). Being in a position or direction perpendicular to the horizon; upright; plumb. Vespasian (ves-pazh'yan). A Roman emperor, A. D. 70-79, during whose reign was commenced the Colosseum at Rome.

Vesta (ves'ta). The goddess of the vestal virgins. One Roman temple of this name exists at Tivoli. It still contains windows of the true Roman period. (See Fig. 130).

Vestibule (ves'ti-bul). An entrance or passage hall next the outer door of a house, from which the doors open into the various inner rooms. A porch, lobby, hall.

Vignola (ve-nyo'la), Giacomo Barozzi. A Renaissance architect and student of architecture. Author of the well-known work on the Renaissance Orders of Architecture. He succeeded Michelangelo as the architect of St. Peter's, Rome.

Vitruvius Pollio (vi-troo'vi-us pol'i-o). A Roman engineer and writer on architecture

Volutes (vo'luts). A kind of spiral scroll forming the principal ornament of the Ionic and a subordinate part of the Composite capitals. (See Fig. 61).

Votive (vo'tiv). Devoted to some object or deity; generally in commemoration of a certain event or in consequence of a vow.

Voussoir (voos-swar'). One of the wedgelike stones forming an arch. (See Fig. 98).

W

Wainscot (wan'skot). The wooden lining of walls, generally in panels and along the lower portion only of their height.

Wave ornament (wav or'na-ment). A Greek decorative form of flowing curves, regularly repeated; generally used in a band or frieze. (See M. Plate XL).

Winds, Tower of the. A horologium or water clock erected at Athens by Andronicus Cyrrhestes in the 1st Century B. C. It was octagonal in plan, and very ornate, being surmounted by a bronze triton serving as a weather-vane. (See Figs. 72 and 74).

Z

Zeus (zus). Supreme god of mythology, to whom many temples were erected, the principal one being that at Olympia. Identified with the Roman Jupiter.