This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Beni-Hassan (ba'ne-has'san). A village on the Nile, near which are several ancient rock-cut tombs dating from about 3000 B. 0.
Beneventum (ben-e-ven'tum.) An inland town of Italy, northeast of Naples, where there is an arch of date 11'4 A. D. erected in honor of Trajan.
Bounding wall. A wall enclosing any area or defining a boundary.
Cable (ka'b'l). A small, raised moulding of rounded section, made to resemble (he spiral twist of a rope; used for ornamenting the plain surface- of fillets, or the furrows of flutings; when used on a column, this method of decoration is termed cabling.
Calyx (ka'liks). The outer covering of a carved flower ornament. (See Plate XV).
Campanile (kamp'a-nil). A bell tower, especially one built separate from a church. (See Plate XXVI.) Canals (ka-nab/). The name sometimes given to the channels in the Doric triglyph. (See Fig. 7.) Canalis (ka-na'lis). The space enclosed between the fillets of the Ionic volute, convex in section in early work; and later, concave. (See Plate XLII.) Canted (kan'ted). Set at an angle; tilted or moved from a horizontal line.
<• volute in Fig. 120.) Cap (kap). A lop or crowning member, or series of members-as the capital of a column. (See Fig. 3.) Capital (kap'i-tal). The uppermosl part of a column, pillar, or pilaster, which serves as a crown to the shaft, and occurs between it and the entablature or other upper portions of the structure. (See Figs. 3 and 25.) Capitoline (kap'i-to-lin). The name given to one of the seven hills on which Rome was built, situated at the end of the Forum; upon it was built the Capitol.
Caryatid (kar-i-at'id). Plural, Caryatides. A female figure serving as a column to support an entablature, or used in place of a column under any other similar conditions. (See Figs. 80 and 81.) Corresponding male figures are called Atlantes. Castor and Pollux (kas'tor and pol'luks). Two Greek deities in whose honor was erected a temple at Cora. Catellus (ka-tel'lus). A Roman leader, under whose direction the Tabularium in Rome was built. Cathetus (kath'e-tus). The vert ical line drawn through the eye and volute of the Ionic capital, upon which is based the geometrical method of laying out the spiral. (See Fig. 11).
Cauliculus (kau-lik'u-lus). Plural, Cauliculi. The volutes or small stalks under the flower on the abacus in the Corinthian capital. Also sometimes called Helices (plural of Helix). (See Plates XV and XVI).
Cavetto (ka-vet'o). A hollowed-out or concave moulding. (See Fig. 5.) Cella (sel'a). The room or chamber containing the image of the Deity, which formed the nucleus of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, as distinguished from the additional rooms often combined with it to form the complete temple. (See Figs. 33, 34, and 67).
Channel (chan'cl). (a) One of a series of grooves, usually vertical and of elliptical section, separated by sharp edges or arrises, and forming a characteristic feature of the shaft of the Greek Doric Order. The channel is to be distinguished from the flute, of which the section is an arc of a circle. (See Fig. 49.) (6) The V-sunk incision occurring in the face of the Doric triglyph. (See Fig. 7).
Chambers (cham'berz), Sir William. An English architect and writer on architecture, belonging to the end of the English Renaissance period.
Chamfer (cham'fer). A slope or bevel generally referring to anything originally right-angled, as a square corner, cut away so as to make an angle with the sides that form it. (See B, Figs. 47 and 48).
Choragic (ko-raj'ik). Pertaining to, or in honor of, a choragus. (See Figs. 75, 76, and 77, and Plate XLIX).
Choragus (ko-ra/gus). The Greek title given to the superintendent of a musical or theatrical entertainment, who provided a chorus at his own expanse.
Classic (klas'ik). Relating to ancient Greek and Roman work as examples of architecture of the first rank or estimation, which are still studied as the best models of fine building. Established by custom and precedent as a model-hence correct; pure; and, sometimes, coldly perfect.
Clepsydra (klcp'si-dra). A water clock, a contrivance used anciently for telling time by the gradual, measured discharge of water from a small aperture, the flow for a given unit of time being first determined.
Clearstory (kler'sto-ri). The upper story of a church-, perforated with windows forming chief source of light for central portions of the building. It stands above the triforium or blind story, where such is present. Spelled also Clerestory.
Cloister (klois'ter). The covered passageway connecting a cathedral and chapter house, or running around a courtyard.
Coffer (kof'cr). A sunk panel or compartment of an ornamental character in a ceiling or soffit; generally enriched with mouldings, and having a rose, star, or other ornament in the center. (See Fig. 14).
Collarino (kol-a-re'no). The necking of the Doric or Ionic column. (See Fig. 10 and Plate XLIII).
Colosseum (kol-o-se'-um). A celebrated amphitheater at Rome. Was commenced 72 A. D. by Vespasian, continued by Titus, and finally dedicated by Domitian in S2 A. D. Sometimes spelled Coliseum. (See Fig. 112).