This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Floweret (flou-er-ef). A small flower; one of the parts of the Classic Corinthian and Composite capitals. (See Plate XV).
Flute (floot). One of a series of curved furrows, usually semicircular in plan, separated by narrow fillets. (See F, Fig. 49, and Figs. 55 and 56.) When such fillets arc partially filled up by a smaller, raised, semicircular moulding section, they are said to be cabled.
Fluting (floo'ting). A groove or furrow; the system of decorating by the use of flutes. (See Flute).
Fortuna Virilis (for-tu'na vir-i'lis). A Corinthian temple in Rome. (Sec Fig. 123).
Gibbs (gibz), James. One of the best known English architects and writers of the Renaissance. Girth (gerth). The circumference of anything; or the distance around a column. Glyphs (glifs). The channels cut in the face of the Doric triglyph. (See Fig. 7.) Greek Fret (grek fret). A geometrical, repeating ornament, generally used to ornament a fascia, band, or frieze. (See L and N, Plate XL).
Groined (groind). The term applied to the curved intersection of two vaults meeting each other at any angle. (See Fig. 27).
Guilloche (gi-losh'). The term given a series of interlocking circles or curved lines forming an ornamental, repeated design; a Classic method of decorating a flat or slightly curved band. (See M and O in Plate XL).
Guttae (gut'e), pl. of Gutta. One of a series of pending ornaments, generally in the form of a frustum of a cone-but sometimes cylindrical-attached to the underside of the mutule and regula of the Doric entablature. (See Figs. 7 and 8.) They probably represent the wooden pegs or tree-nails which occupied these positions in primitive wooden construction.
Hadrian (ha'dri-an). Roman emperor, A. D. 76-138. Did much towards restoring and improving Rome. Erected temples to Trajan, Venus, etc.
Halicarnassus (hal-i-kar-nas'sus). A Dorian city in Asia Minor, famous for the mausoleum built there by Artemis for her husband.
Hatching (nach'ing). A method of drawing diagonal parallel lines to indicate or emphasize certain parts of a design; when these are crossed by other lines, the drawing is termed cross-hatching. (See C, D, E, and F, Fig. 2).
Helix (he'liks), pl. of Helices (he'lis-ez). Any spiral; particularly a small volute or twist under the abacus of the Corinthian capital. (See Cauliculus).
Hera(he'ra). Wife of Zeus. Queen of the heavens. There existed a famous statue of her in the Temple of Argos, and at Samos a Greek Ionic Temple in her honor.
Hercules (her'ku-lez)„ A Greek god. At Cora is an early Roman Doric square temple of Greek workmanship, called by his name. (See Fig. 139).
Hermes (her'mez). A small, square shaft, generally tapering toward the bottom and terminating at the top in a bust or head.
Hexastyle (heks'a-stll). Having six columns. (See Fig. 33).
Hypaethral (hi'pe'thral). Open to the sky; lacking a roof. (See Fig. 34).
Hypostyle (hl'po-stfl). Containing pillars.
Honeysuckle (hun'i-suk-1). An architectural ornament suggested by the flower, generally used on a decorative frieze. (Sec Q in Plate XL).
Hypctrachelium (hi'po-lra-ke'li-um). In the Doric Order the junction of the capital and the shaft, marked by a bevel or cut around the lower edge of the capital block. (See Fig 39).
Ictinus (ic-ti'nus). A famous architect of Greece belonging to the second half of the 5th century B. C. He was the chief designer of the Parthenon and of the Temple of Apollo near Phigalia.
Ilissus (i-lis'sus). A small river ia Attica that flows through a part of the city of Athens.
Impost (im'post). The horizontal mouldings which receive, or upon. which rest, an arch springing from a wall or square column. (See Fig. B).
Intercolumniation (in'ter-ko-him-ni-a'shon). A spacing apart of columns.
The distance in the clear between columns. (See Figs. 18, 19, 89, 90, 143, 144, and 145.) Interior (in-te'ri-or). The inside of a building, house, or room. Intersection (in-ter-sek'shon). The crossing of any two or more lines at any angle with each other.
Intrados (in-tra'dos). The interior curve of an arch. (See Fig. 9G.) Ionic (I-on'ik). One of the three Greek Orders-named from the Ionic race, by whom it is held to have been devoloped and perfected-the most distinguishing feature of which is the volute of the capital with its "roll" ends and two faces. (See Fig. 50).
Jupiter Olympus (ju'pi-tcr o-lym'pus). The supreme Greek deity. The best known temple to this god is the Corinthian building at Athens, begun by Greek workmen about 170 B. C., and finished by them 117 A. D. under Hadrian. (See Plate LII).
Kanawat (kan'a-wat). A town in Syria containing some examples of early Roman architecture.
Keystone (ke'ston). The stone at the apex of anarch, which, being last put in place, is regarded as keying or locking the whole structure together. (See Figs. 13 and 98).