This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Paestum (pes'tum). A city in Lucania famous for the ruins of two or more Doric temples. Palatine (pal'a-tln). One of the seven hills of Rome. Palladio (pal-lad'i-o). An Italian writer and architect, best known for his palaces at Vicenza and churches at Venice. The last great architect of the Italian Renaissance. Palmette (pal-met'). A conventional floral ornament or leaf, more or less resembling a palm leaf. (See P and Q, Plate XL.) Palmyra (pal-ml'ra). A town in Syria, long since deserted, where yet remain extensive and superb Roman ruins. Pandrosos (pan-dro'sos). Daughter of Cecrops. In her honor a temple sanctuary was built at Athens.
Panel (pan'el). A compartment with raised margins, moulded or otherwise, as in ceilings, wainscots, and the like. (See Fig. 9).
Pantheon (pan'the-on). A large, circular temple with a Corinthian portico, in Rome, originally dedicated in reign of Augustus B. C. 27-A. D. 14. The columns, entablatures, etc., of the portico of the present building, which dates mostly from 120-124 A. D., were parts of the original structure. (See Figs. 102 and 103).
Part (part), (a) The unit into which the module or one-half diameter, of columns is divided in laying out the Roman orders;1/12 of the module for the Tuscan and Doric, and 1/18 of the module for the Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite Orders, (b) A separate division, fraction, or fragment of a whole.
Parthenon (par'the-non). The Temple of Athene Parthenos at Athens. It crowned the Acropolis, and is regarded as the most nearly perfect building in the world. Begun about 450 B. C. after designs by Ictinus and Callicrates, under the political direction of Pericles, and the artistic superintendence of the great sculptor Phidias. Dedicated 438 B. C. (See Frontispiece illustration; also Fig. 45).
Pedestal (ped'es-tal). The base or foot of a column, statue, or the like; the part on which an upright work stands; it consists of three parts, the base, die, and the cap or cornice. (See Figs. 3 and 25).
Pediment (ped'i-ment). The gable or trianguar end of the roof of a building. (See Fig. 20).
Pelasgians (pel-as'ji-ans). Name given to the earliest inhabitants of Greece.
Pentelic (pen-tel'ik). A Classic variety of pure, fine-grained marble, obtained from Mount Pentelicus in Attica.
Pericles (per'i-klcz). A celebrated Athenian statesman and orator. Born about. 495 B. C; di Athens 429 B. C. The Age of Pericles was the Golden Age of Greece, the period of its highest political, artistic, and literary development.
Peripteral (pe-rip'te-ral). Having a row of columns all around. (See Figs. 33 and 34).
Peristyle (pcr'i-otil). A range or ranges of columns surrounding any part of a temple or house. (See Figs. 33 and 34).
Perspective (per-spek'tiv). (a) A drawing or rendering of an object so as to show it as it would actually appear to the eye of a spectator. The projection-geometrically-on a picture plane so that the object drawn will appear as when seen from some particular point. (6) The apparent vanishing of parallel lines as their distance from the eye is increased.
Phidias (fid'i-as). A celebrated Greek sculptor born about 500 B. C.; died about 430 B. C. He was associated with Pericles in the artistic beautifying of Athens. His greatest work was the colossal gold and ivory statue of Athene (Minerva) which adorned the cella of the Parthenon.
Phigalia (fi-ga'li-a). An ancient town in the Peloponnesus. Also spelt Phigalaja. Noted for its Temple of Apollo.
Pillar (piller). A round pier carrying the arches or wall of a building. (See C,Fig.2).
Pilaster (pi-las'ter). A rectangular column or pier, attached to a wall and projecting about one-fourth to one-sixth of its breadth from the wall surface, corresponding in cap, base, and general proportions with the columns of the Order with which it is used; but the shaft entasis of the column is frequently omitted from the pilaster. (Sec Fig. 92).
Plan (plan). A drawing on a plane surface, of the horizontal section of an object, and intended to show its arrangement and disposition; generally applied to the horizontal projection or section of a building drawn at a small scale. (See Fig. 2).
Plane (plan). Level; an even surface without elevations or depressions. Platform (plat'form). A floor raised above the general level, for the support of objects or people. Plinth (plinth). A member, square in plan and rectangular in elevation, forming the lowest division of the base of a column. (See Fig. 4.) The plane, projecting surface at the bottom of a wall, immediately above the ground. Plumb (plum). Perpendicular. Pollux (pol'lux). A Greek god, brother of Castor. (Sec Castor).
Polycletus (pol-i-kle'tus). A celebrated Greek sculptor and architect who lived in the last part of the fifth century B. C.
HOUSE AT WOLLASTON, MASS.
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect, Boston, Mass.
Lot 75 Feet Wide, 200 Feet Deep. Cost in 1904 a Trifle over $6,200. For Exteriors, See Page 314; for interior, See Vol. II, Page 186.
SECOND-FLOOR PLAN OF HOUSE AT WOLLASTON, MASS.
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect, Boston, Mass. First-Floor Plan Shown on Opposite Page.
Polystyle (pol'i-stfl). Having or supported by many columns, or surrounded by several rows of columns.
Pompeii (pom-pa'ye). A city in Campania founded 6th century B. C, buried 79 A. D. by an eruption of the volcano of Vesuvius.