This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
In tlie scheme of pronunciation, all long vowels are marked; those having no quantity indicated are short.
Abutment (a-but'ment). The solid masonry construction supporting each side of an arch, and calculated to resist its thrust. A pier or buttress built against a wall to receive or transmit a thrust. (See Plate XXIX).
Acanthus (a-kan'thus). A spiny plant whose leaf is used-in conventionalized form-as a decoration for capitals, brackets, etc. (See Fig. 69).
Acropolis (a-krop'o-lis). The upper or higher part of a Grecian city; hence, a citadel or castle; generally used with special reference to the Acropolis at Athens, crowned with the Parthenon. (See Frontispiece illustration).
Acroter (ak'ro-ter), Acroterium (ak-rd-te'ri-um); plural, Acroteria (ak-ro-te'-ri-a). A small pedestal placed on the apex or at the basal angle of a pediment to support a statue or other ornament; a statue or ornament placed on such a pedestal. (See Fig. 45).
.Ęgean (e-je'an). A "sea" or gulf of the Mediterranean, lying east of Greece.
Ęgina. (e-jl'na). The capital city of an island of the same name in the Ęgean Sea, containing a famous Greek Doric temple of Pallas Athene or Minerva, the goddess of wisdom and war.
Agrigentum (ag-ri-jen'tum). A city on the south coast of Sicily (the modern Girgenti), noted for its Doric temple of Zeus and many other Greek structures dating from before the Carthaginian conquest in the 5th century B. C.
Agrippa (a-grip'pa). A Roman general, born B. C. 63, the leading statesman of the reign of Augustus. The present Pantheon was erected on the site and-in part-from the materials of an earlier temple built by him, dedicated in 27 B. C.
Aizani (I-zan'i). A small town of Phrygia, Asia Minor, containing some early remains of Greek workmanship. (See Fig. 135).
Akroter (ak'ro-ter). Same as Acroter.
Alberti (al-ber'te), Leone Battista. A Renaissance architect and writer on architecture.
DESIGN FOR A $3,500 HOUSE. N. Max Dunning, Architect, Chicago, 111.
DESIGN FOR A $3,500 HOUSE N. Max Dunning, Architect, Chicago, 111. Exterior and Interior Views Shown on Opposite Page.
Ambulatory (am'bu-la-to-ri). A covered passage or walk, generally located just within the main walls of a building; a passage around the choir in the apse or chancel of a cathedral, or between the columns and walls of a circular building. (See Fig. 78).
Amphiprostyle (am-phip'ro-stil). Provided with a columned portico at each end. (See Figs. 33 and 34).
Ancona (an-co'na). A town on the Adriatic Sea, containing a Roman single arch in a comparatively good state of preservation, dating from about 112 A. D., erected in honor of Trajan. This arch is unique from the fact that it can be approached only by ascending a flight of steps. (See Fig. 137).
Andron (an'drori). An open space, court, or passage in a Greek building; also the portion of a house especially appropriated for males.
Annulet (an'nu-let). A small fillet, circular in plan and usually square or angular in section, under the echinus of the Doric capital. It is also sometimes used at the base of the column and in connection with other mouldings. (See Figs. 41-44; and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, Plate XXXIX).
Anta (an'ta). Plural, antae. Greek pilasters, placed at the ends of the side walls of a temple, forming the corners, whose bases, capitals and proportions differ from the accompanying columns, when columns are placed between them. (See D, Fig. 2; also Fig. 91.) These columns are said to be in antis-i. e., between antae. (See Plate XXXV, Temple of Diana Propyloea).
Antefix (an'te-fiks). Plural, antefixes. Ornamental blocks placed at regular intervals on the eaves or cornices of Classic buildings to cover the termination of the tiling ridges. (See Plates XXXVI and L).
Anthemion (an-the'mi-on). Sometimes called "honeysuckle." A floral ornament employed-generally with the acroteria-to decorate Classic friezes and capital neckings. (See Plate XL and Fig. 92).
Anton:nus (an-to-ni'nus). A Roman emperor, A. D. 138-161. (See Plate LIV.) Apollo Didymaeus (a-pol'lo did-i-me'us). One of the many name sunder which the Olympian god Apollo was known. In his honor was built a temple near Miletus in Asia Minor, a splendid example of the Ionic Ordor.
(See Fig. 71.) Apophyge (a-pof'i-je). The cavetto or concave sweep at the top and bottom of some column shafts, leading to the capital and base; the hollow or scotia beneath the echinus of the earliest Doric capitals, leading to the shaft. (See Figs. 122, 126, and 128).
Apse (aps). The curved or angular and vaulted end of a church, back of the altar.
Aqueduct (ak'we-dukt). An engineering work employed to carry a conduit for water from one distant point to another. In crossing a valley, it generally consists of a series of arches resting on piers. ( See Fig. 101).