Table I. Effects Of Change In Voltage

Standard 3.5-Watt Lamp

VOLTAGE

Per Cent of Normal

Candle-Power

Per Cent of

Normal

Watts Per Candle-Power

Life Per Cent of Normal

Deterioration

Per Cent of Normal

90,

53

5.36

91

56

5.09

92

61

1.85

93

65

4.63

94

69

4.44

394

25

95

73

4.26

310

32

96

78

4.09

217

4 4

97

83

3.93

195

51

98

88

3.78

153

65

99

94

3.64

126

79

100

100

3 .5

100

100

101

106

3.38

84

118

102

111

3.27

68

146

103

116

3.16

58

173

104

123

3.05

47

211

105

129

2.95

39

253

106

137

2.85

31

316

107

143

2.76

26

380

108

152

2.68

21

17 1

109

159

2.60

17

575

110

167

2 53

16

637

Lamps of 3.5 watts per candle-power should be used when the regulation is fair, say with a maximum variation of 2% from the normal voltage.

Fig. 5. Curves of Efficiency and Life of Carbon Filament Lamps.

Fig. 5. Curves of Efficiency and Life of Carbon Filament Lamps.

Lamps of 4 watts per candle-power should be installed when the regulation is poor. These values are for 110-volt lamps. A 220-volt lamp should have a lower efficiency to give a long life. This is on account of the fact that, for the same candle-power, the 220-volt lamp must be constructed with a filament which is long and and slender compared to that of the 110-volt lamp, and if such a filament is run at a high temperature its life is short. The 220-volt lamp is used to some considerable extent abroad but it is not employed extensively in the United States. It is customary to operate such lamps at an efficiency of about 4 watts per candle-power.

Fig. 6. Life Curves of Incandescent Lamps

Fig. 6. Life Curves of Incandescent Lamps.

Lamps should always be renewed at the end of their useful life, this point being termed the smashing-point, as it is cheaper to replace the lamp than to run it at the reduced candle-power. Some recommend running these lamps at a higher voltage, but that means at a reduced life, and it is not good practice to do this.

Fig. 7. Horizontal Distribution Curve for Single Loop Filament.

Fig. 7. Horizontal Distribution Curve for Single-Loop Filament.

Fig. 6 shows the life curves of a series of incandescent lamps. These curves show that there is an increase in the candle-power of some of the lamps during the first 100 hours, followed by a period during which the value is fairly constant, after which the light given by the lamp is gradually reduced to about 80% of the initial candle-power.