This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The fourth century B. C. is, for the Ionic style, also a brilliant period, though it is no longer in Greece but in Asia Minor that we shall find the best material for study. There is the superb Tomb and the Temple at Priene, and the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus; while Polonios of Ephesus and Daphnis of Miletus often employed the Ionic Order with the most consummate art.
In most of the temples of Asia Minor, there exists between the corona and the frieze a row of dentils used in much the same manner as on the Porch of the Caryatides on the Acropolis at Athens.
Height of Shaft. In the Greek Ionic buildings of which we possess definite remains, the columns vary in height between a little more than eight and a little less than nine diameters. The measurement of eight diameters and one-half, which Vitruvius gives to the Ionic column, may be considered as coming in the exact middle between these two extremes; although later authorities -for the same reason as already given regarding the Doric column-prefer to take the highest dimension as a standard for modern purposes. The diameter of the column at the top of the shaft varies from eight to eight and one-half tenths of its diameter at the base. Thus we see that this column has at once a higher, more slender, and more graceful shaft than the Doric, and that there is also less difference between the diameter at the base and neck than in the shorter and stumpier Doric shaft. On the Erechtheum, of which we have given a drawing in Plate XLIV, the height is a little less than nine diameters. The columns of the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus are a little more than ten; but those of Athena at Priene are approximately nine diameters, and the Temple of Hera at Samos eight diameters and one-half; while on the little Temple of Artemis near the bank of the Ilissus, the column-according to Stewart, who has reconstructed it-has a height of eight diameters and one-fourth.
The Greek Ionic column has also much less taper than any of the Greek Doric shafts, while it is notable in at least one instance-that of the North Porch of the Erechtheum, or, more properly, the Portico to the Temple of Minerva Polias-that the Ionic columns have a swell or belly of 1/134 their diameter.
Entasis. The taper on these columns is much less accentuated than on the Doric Order. We find that the larger diameter, in the middle, is one-seventh more than the smaller diameter. On the Erechtheum this diminution is of one-twelfth; on the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, it is one-eighth; and on the little Temple on the Ilissus, it is one-seventh. An entasis or curving contour of the shaft exists in a very delicate and subtle form in the Ionic Order.
Flirtings. Next to its proportions, the distinguishing feature of the shaft of this Order is the radically different character of fluting which is invariably used whenever the column of this Order is so ornamented. While in the examples of the Greek Doric work it is found that the later columns are almost invariably fluted, and it is only the earlier examples which were occasionally left smooth and plain, with the introduction of the Ionic column the question of fluting the shaft seems to have been left more or less to the discretion of the designer. There are late instances where this column has been left plain and unornamented, quite as often as early ones in which the fluting first peculiar to this Order is used. There are generally twenty-four channels or flutes-four more than in the Doric Order; and their section is as shown in Fig. 56, much deeper and approaching a half-circle in outline, while the channels are separated from each other by a ridge or "fillet," a part of the surface of the column shaft itself. We have already traced the probable growth and derivation of these channels in Fig. 49.
(A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLI).
Bases, Ionic and Attic. The Ionic and Corinthian columns, being lighter, more elaborate in treatment, more refined in principle, and giving less of an effect of stability, seemed, unlike the earlier Doric, to require a base in order to give some apparent strength to the column as a supporting member. Otherwise the wide spacing of these columns, and the thinness of their shafts, would not satisfy the eye of the beholder. The base, besides fulfilling its purpose as an ornamental member, renders it apparent that a larger bearing surface is given the column, and that the weight it carries is thus distributed over a larger area of support.
A base of the height of one module, or one half-diameter, is therefore always used with this column. There are two sorts of bases, easily distinguished by the form of their mouldings:
The Ionic base is composed of a plinth supporting two astragals, and two scotias accompanying these two astragals, with fillets and a torus moulding. In Asia Minor, this base is subjected to considerable modifications.
The Attic base is more simple, and is composed of a torus moulding, a scotia with two fillets, and a large torus, the latter resting directly on the platform or steps around the temple, without the intervening square plinth (A, Fig. 57).
Fig. 56. Ionic Fluting. (Part plan and elevation.).
The base which usually appears with this order is of the Attic variety, circular in plan, and without a square plinth as in later Roman usage, with the exception of one type, that in the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene. In Fig. 57 are shown the most typical variations of Greek Ionic column bases. That at A, taken from the Erechtheum at Athens, is generally termed the "Attic base", from the fact that it was most highly developed in Athens and the neighboring portions of the state of Attica. This base is sometimes varied by making the lower torus very small in height, and flattening the scotia, as in Plate XLII; but it still retains the characteristics of the Attic base. The base at B, Fig. 57, is the only instance in Greek work where they have employed with this Order a plinth square in plan and rectangular in elevation. The example shown at C, Fig. 57, is taken from a column at Samos, and is a somewhat unusual form. At Ephesus there is an example of the use of the Ionic Order where the base of the column is encircled by a dado carved with figures of considerable relief. The base shown at D is from the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Phigalia.