This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The entablature used with the decorated Ionic capital on the Erechtheum is shown in Plate XLV, where the beautiful proportions of its various horizontal parts and mouldings may be studied carefully, The use of carved or ornamented members in this cornice is especially notable, from the restraint employed in placing them at the exact points where this enriched line demarks most plainly the main horizontal divisions of the entablature and strengthens the more important shadows cast by the moulded sections. The carved bed-mould of the cornice, and the ornamented member of the crowning part of the architrave, are shown at a large size in A and B; while at C are given the carved members of the anta used with the column, the base of which is shown at D, opposite the enlarged section of the Attic base of the Erechtheum columns at E. This plate will indicate the great refinement and purity of the best type of ornamental Greek carved mouldings, and will also show how closely the character of the carving follows and emphasizes the contour of the moulded section itself. Various Examples of the Ionic Order. There are many types of the Ionic Order where the capitals are of different characters, and a short description of each will be found necessary in order to comprehend, in even a rapid fashion, the character which is given to these designs and details, and the different elements that compose the most beautiful examples. At Athens, and particularly in the Temple of the Wingless Victory (Plate XLII),the mouldings forming the roll of the volute are divided and bent towards the axis of the capital. At Phigalia (Fig. 64), the volutes, being larger and simpler and with much projection, are rejoined to each other about the axis. In Asia Minor, the volutes are in general relieved by absolutely horizontal mouldings (Fig. 65). These three general types will show the variety of the different capitals used in the Greek Ionic Order. In the old examples the volutes were given more projection, and afterwards apparently reduced on account of exigencies of construction. They are also more developed or refined in treatment in later Orders, and the eye of the volute is ordinarily placed in plane with the line of the shaft. It is not very late in Italy when the eyes of the volutes are placed still nearer each other, and we find them coming even inside of this line.
Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene. There is a rather individual form of Greek Ionic Order employed in the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene, which has been drawn out in Plate XLVI. The base of this Order we have already mentioned, but the capital is unlike any example we have yet seen. It is a version of the simple or plain Greek Ionic, but the designer was not satisfied by showing one-half of his volute on the internal angle of the capital, as in the corner capital from the Temple on the Ilissus at Athens, shown in plan in Fig. 62, which should be compared with the plan of the capital on this plate. It will be noticed that in order to show the complete volute in this angle it was necessary to throw out the roll at the back of the capital, opening the space between it and the ornamented egg-and-dart of the echinus moulding which follows in plan the circular shape of the shaft. This would produce a certain awkwardness of the soffit, seen when looking up at the capital from the inside of the porch, which would seemingly offset the advantage gained by completing the circle of the two volutes shown on this internal angle. It also necessitates the peculiar shape of abacus on that corner, completed in plan in Plate XLVI by the dotted lines. To be sure, this is much more logical in itself than breaking out the abacus on the opposite exterior angle over the corner volute; but it is questionable if the effects in elevation shown in the capital immediately above the plan would be as happy or natural as in the other method, shown in the example from the Temple on the Ilissus already mentioned.
PLATE XLVI, (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLVI).
The entablature of the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene is more elaborate than that shown in the Order on Plate XLI, and more nearly approaches the later Roman form. We see here an instance of the use of a dentil course in the bed-mould of the cornice, which partakes somewhat, by its extreme projection, of the nature of the console or bracket, and which may have given to the Romans the idea they afterwards developed. The treatment of the soffit shown in the small plan below is very similar to that between the corner mutules of the Greek Doric building. The cornice and crowning mouldings, shown at the right-hand upper corner of this plate at A, are taken from the gable or pediment of the building. This plate further shows the ornamented soffit of the architrave in the-section through the entablature given at the right, which contains a small sunk panel ornamented with a carved moulding, this panel, however, being very narrow. In the sections shown on this plate, the stones hatched with a lighter line are restored and conjectural.
Another authority shows this Order without the frieze, and places the brackets or dentils directly upon the crowning member of the architrave. A method for determining the centers required to draw out the volute of the Greek Ionic capital, is shown in the lower right-hand corner of the plate.