Lighting of public halls and other large interiors differs from the illumination of residences in that there is usually less reflected light, and, again, the distance of the light sources from the plane of illumination is generally greater if an artistic arrangement of the lights is to be brought about. This in turn reduces the direct illumination. The primary object is, however, as in residence lighting, to produce a fairly uniform ground illumination and to superimpose a stronger illumination where necessary. An illumination of .5 foot-candle for the ground illumination may be taken as a minimum.

In the lighting of large rooms it is permissible to use larger light units, such as arc lamps and high candle-power Nernst or incandescent units, while for factory lighting and drafting rooms, where the color of the light is not so essential, the Cooper-Hewitt lamp is being introduced. High candle-power reflector lamps, such as the tungsten lamp, are being used to a large extent for offices and drafting rooms.

The choice of the type of lamp depends on the nature of the work. Where the light must be steady, incandescent or Nernst lamps are to be preferred to the arc or vapor lamps, though the latter are often the more efficient. When arcs are used, they must be carefully shaded so as to diffuse the light, doing away with the strong shadows due to portions of the lamp mechanism, and to reduce the intrinsic brightness. Such shading will be taken up under the heading "Shades and Reflectors." Arcs are sometimes preferable to incandescent lamps when colored objects are to be illuminated, as in stores and display windows.

In locating lamps for this class of lighting, much depends on the nature of the building and on the degree of economy to be observed. For preliminary determination of the location of groups, or the illumination when certain arrangement of the units is assumed, the principles outlined under "Residence Lighting" may be applied. It has been found that actual measurements show results approximating closely such calculated values.

When arcs are used they should be placed fairly high, twenty to twenty-five feet when used for general illumination and the ceilings are high. They should be supplied with reflectors so as to utilize the light ordinarily thrown upwards. When used for drafting-room work, they should be suspended from twelve to fifteen feet above the floor, and special care must be taken to diffuse the light.

Incandescent lamps may be arranged in groups, either as side lights or mounted on chandeliers, or they may be arranged as a frieze running around the room a few feet below the ceiling. The last named arrangement of lights is one that may be made artistic, but it is uneconomical and when used should serve for the ground illumination only. Reflector lights may be used for this style of work and the lights may be entirely concealed from view, the reflecting property of the walls being utilized for distributing the light when needed.

Ceiling lights should preferably be supplied with reflectors, especially when the ceilings are high.

Indirect lighting is employed to some extent. By indirect lighting we mean a system of illumination in which the light sources are concealed and the light from them is reflected to the room by the walls, or ceilings, or other surfaces; or in which the light sources are plated above a diffusing panel. In the latter case the diffusing plate appears to be the source of light. In some cases the walls themselves are shaped and constructed so as to form the reflectors for the light units (cove lighting), but in others all of the reflecting surfaces, except the side walls and ceiling, are made portions of the lamp fixtures. Tables XVI and XVII give data on arc and mercury-vapor lamps for lighting large rooms. Table XVII refers to arc lights as actually installed.

Table XVI. Cooper-Hewitt Lamps

Service

Height of Lamp

C. P. of Unit

Av. Area for Lamp in Square Feet

Foundry

10-15 ft.

300

900

"

20-25 "

700

2250

Machine Shop

10-15 "

300

500

Erecting Shop

20-30 "

700

1250

Drafting room

15 "

300

300

"

20 "

700

400

Offices

10-15 "

300

400

"

20-25 "

700

750

Ordinary labour

10-15 "

300

1100

" "

20-25 "

700

2750

Table XVII. Lighting Data For Arc Lamps

Place Lighted

Clothing Store

Weave Room

Erecting Room

Machine Shop

Drafting Room

Drafting Room

Ship Shed

Cataloging Dept.

Jewelry Store

No. of sq. ft. place lighted. .

4000

14400

281600

42250

6275

5690

69000

4136

4000

No. lamps used..

12

50

200

42

27

24

50

17

6

Circuit...

A. C. Mult.

D. C. Mult.

D. C. Mult.

D. C. Mult.

A. C Series

D. C. Mult.

D. C. Mult.

D. C. Mult.

D. C. Mult.

Cycles......

60

60

Volts line.....

104

110

120

120

120

220

110

110

Amperes.....

6

3 1/4

6.2

6 2

7.5

4

0

4 1/2

5

Volts at arc..

72

75

80

80

72

80

80

80

80

Power factor of lamp...

.69

.86

Watts per lamp..

430

357

744

744

490

4S0

660

495

550

Watts per sq. ft. (term.) . .

1.29

1.24

.53

.74

2.11

2.02

.478

2.03

825

Kw. at term, (whole installation).....

5.16

17.8

148.8

31.25

13.22

11 .52

33

8.42

3.3

Kw. at arc (whole installation) ...

4.62

12.28

99 .2

20.8

12.42

7.68

24

6.12

2.4

Sq. ft. lighted per lamp.

333

288

1408

1006

232

237

1380

243

667

Sq. ft. lighted per amp.

55.6

88.6

227

162

31

59.2

230

54.1

133.5

Enclosing globe..

Opal.

Opal.

Opal.

Opal.

Opal.

Opal.

Opal.

Height and style of ceiling .

12' white steel

Saw Toothed

Trussed

Trussed

12' White

Trussed

160' Trussed

13' 9" Maroon

16' 10' White

Reflector system used.

Concentric Diffuser

Adjust. Diffuser

9" Mirror

9" Mirror

Concentric Diffuser

16 Adj.Dif. 8 Con.Dif.

12" Mirror

Concentric Diffuser

Concentric Diffuser

Height of arc from floor___

9' 6"

12'to 15'

46'

47'

9'

15'

150'

10' 7"

13' 2"

Distance between lamps.

14' to 18'

24'

32' to 38'

30' 9"

15'

12'to 25'

17'to 20'

14 to 18'

16'to 25'