This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
PLAN OF HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, FAIRHAVEN, MASS.
Brigham, Coveney & Bisbee, Architects, Boston, Mass.
143. As an application of the study of the Corinthian Order, draw out an archway similar to that of the Ionic Order just described. The drawing should show a plan, section, and half elevation, but should follow the proportions and dimensions given in the plates of the Corinthian Order. The columns are spaced about 3 entablatures and 40 parts and the center of the archivolt is occupied by a keystone ornamented with the console shown in Fig. 16.
This problem is exactly like the problem of the arched doorway in the Ionic order except for the fact that the proportions and details are those of the Corinthian Order. The distance 3 En.-40 from center to center of the columns is the only dimension given for this plate. The student is expected to obtain all the other necessary dimensions from his study of the preceding plates.
144. In drawing this problem, which will be on a smaller scale than the Corinthian Order plates drawn before, the student should pay particular attention to the proportions of the parts. Some little difficulty may be experienced in laying out the smaller members. While at such a scale it may seem impracticable to draw these members in their true relative size, still, the general proportions of the details of the order may be clearly indicated, if carefully studied and drawn. The sheet should be 20" X28". This size is given so that the student will experience as little difficulty as possible with the smaller members and still have the drawing of a convenient size. Begin by drawing a vertical center line and on each side of this lay out the center lines of the columns.
145. This exercise requires that the student use the Tuscan Order shown in Fig. 6, and the details shown in Plate II. This order is required because it will be 'found easier to use in these early problems on account of the large scale of the mouldings and the few lines required in their delineation. It is to be drawn out to the size of 13" X l8" and is to follow in appearance and arrangement, Plate XXIII. On this plate the plan is completely shown, while the elevation is merely blocked out in the rough, in order that the student in completing it may have independent practice in the use of the order.
This problem displays the inner corner of a square or rectangular court yard, which is surrounded by an arcade composed of the Tuscan pilaster and archway. The floor of the gallery is raised three steps of fifteen parts each, above the level of the court.
146. The gallery is vaulted with semi-circular vaults; that is, vaults whose form is a semi-circumference. A vault formed of a semi-circular arch, without penetrations throughout its whole length, is called a barrel vault. Two vaults of the same radius which intersect each other form what is called a groined vault, because of the hips or groins which mark their intersection. The vaults over this gallery are barrel vaults, which, by their intersections at the angles as well as by the penetrations of the barrel vaults which correspond to the arches of the gallery, form groined vaults. The dotted diagonal lines on the plan show the groins of the vaults. The width of the gallery is two entablatures and forty parts, this width being equal to the distance between the pilasters of the facade. The groined vaults are separated by a space of fifty-five parts, that is, a distance equal to the width of the pilaster.
147. This exercise is to be drawn out at the same size as the one just given, 13"x l8" and the plate numbered XXIV is to be accurately copied. The subject of -this exercise is a gallery in the Doric Order with arches, surrounding a court or garden. The arches rest upon piers, decorated on their faces with a couple of pilasters spaced under alternate triglyphs. The space between the pilasters, occupied by the arches of the arcade, is determined by the spacing of the triglyphs, four of which occur over the arches. These pilasters are repeated in the interior of the gallery, which is covered by a flat ceiling, supported by an entablature whose details are shown on the lower portion of the plate. The ceiling over the corner is separated from that of the rest of the gallery by entablatures and arches restirg on pilasters advancing from the faces of the corner piers. This combination is shown in dotted lines on the plan. The gallery arches are repeated on the blank wall which encloses the gallery. The exterior entablature is surmounted by a plain parapet or balustrade, as the roof of the gallery is flat and would be accessible from the second story of the edifice.
( A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XXIX)
PLATE XXX. (A reproduction at small siz.e of Portfolio Plate XXX.)
148. This exercise is fully drawn out in Plate XXV, and should be copied by the student at the same size as the ones just preceding. In this example we have shown a gallery with colonnade; no arches being employed in the problem.
Here we have another possible treatment for a gallery sur-sounding a court or garden. It is that of a portico or colonnade, with a flat ceiling, the angles being strengthened by square piers, against each face of which a half Pilaster is placed. This causes two pilasters to occur in line with the columns, and the other two to face toward the interior of the gallery, with two other half pilasters projecting from the surrounding walls, opposite them. The architrave of the connecting entablature forms a soffit between them, as the dotted lines of the plan indicate.