This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
149. The surrounding walls are pierced by doors on the longitudinal axes of the gallery. These doors are surrounded by moulded architraves and crowned by entablatures or door caps. A wainscot, or dado, is formed by a string course ornamented with a Vitruvian scroll or wave (this is the term applied to the ornament whose detail is given on this palate at E). A plinth, or base, corresponding in height to the base of the column, runs around the walls; its crowning moulding being formed of the fillet and bead of the column base. The astragal of the capitals also continues around the walls, which, in addition, are decorated with panels intended to receive mural paintings. The flat ceiling, or soffit, of this gallery is similar to that of the preceding exercise and is supported or surrounded by the same entablature. The sloping roof is formed of sheets of zinc or lead corresponding in width to the spacing of the triglyphs, and with lips or rolls formed by the interlocking edges of the sheets. On the same axis with each lip is an antefte placed above the cornice, and shown in detail at F on this plate. In the cornice is formed a gutter for the removal of rainwater
150. The student is required to design an arcade and gallery using the Tonic Order. This gallery is to be similar in treatment to the one shown in Plate XXIII, where the Tuscan Order is employed. The plan of this gallery is shown in Fig. 26, while a perspective sketch of the spring of the arches on an interior angle is shown in Fig. 27. On the plan is indi-cated in dotted lines the form of the arching ceiling over this gallery. It is simply described as a barrel vault with the penetration from each side of arches of a less height and radius. The perspective sketch shows the method of treating the impost moulding on the interior, breaking it around the various pilasters forming the corner pier. On the exterior, the entablature is crowned by a balustrade composed of balusters similar to those shown in Plate XXXIV. The plan will give the width of the arched openings which, as we have already seen in other examples of the Ionic Order, are in height twice their width. This will rmine all the remaining proportions of the exercise, which is to be drawn of the same dimensions as the preceding plates, 13 X 18 inches.
151. In Plate XXVI the Corinthian Order is used for ornamenting the final or crowning story of a Campanile or classic belfry. This problem is simply that of the arch placed between columns, which we have already seen in Plate I; the entablature being crowned with a pediment and such other modifications being made as the problem suggests. The student is required to draw out this plate at the same size as those preceding,
13" X 18", or if he desires he may substitute the Ionic Order and adapt its proportions and details to the same plan.
This upper portion of a Campanile may belong to a church, a city hall, or any other important edifice. The four facades are the same; each is composed of an arch flanked by two pilasters, carrying an entablature, a pediment, and a parapet. Each facade makes a projection from the mass of the tower. The four pediments penetrate the plain parapet which will, in turn, be surmounted by a roof or cupola. The interior is covered by a dome with penden-tives (see paragraphs 157-158).
152. Plate O is shown in Plate XXVII. This exercise requires merely the application of the arch and column of an arched doorway of the Tuscan Order to an actual problem; in this instance, arbitrarally termed a "guard house," the student is required to arrange his drawing on a sheet of the same size as in the previous example, and as shown in this plate. The plan and details being given, he must draw out the elevation.
153. The central part of the plan in this exercise is a porch, with arches, giving access by three doors to rooms placed on each side of the entrance, and to a hall or larger room at the rear.
154. We have called this problem a guard-house, because the disposition of the plan and the architectural character of the facade are well adapted to a problem of this character. The edifice may be completed by adding to its depth two pilasters or bays on each side, two entablatures and seventy parts (2 En. 70) apart from axis to axis; and in this way the lateral facade would be composed of three bays between pilasters, with an opening in each bay; the part added to the plan forms a large hall to which the door placed at the back of the porch gives access. This hall would then be lighted laterally by two windows on each side. The principal facade has a projection formed by two columns placed on pedestals and backed by two pilasters.
All the unanalyzed or new details of the Tuscan Order used in this exercise are shown at a larger scale on this plate. The interior entablature of this problem is the same as the exterior.
This concludes the required Examination; the remaining plates are given as a guide for students desiring to do further work by themselves.
155. The entrance pavilion in the Ionic Order, shown in Plate XXVIII, is a problem similar to the one that has just been taken up. The student is required to reproduce this plate at the large size to which he has already drawn Plate O, with border line of 13x18 inches.
The small edifice is such as might be used at the entrance to certain public buildings, its plan-the same as that of the guard house-being composed of a porch with a room upon either side. One of these rooms might be the lodge for a porter, the other might be a ticket office. One quarter of the plan only is given as the arrangement is the same on the other sides of the axes.