This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
133. The student who has followed closely this analysis with its application, will have an intelligent knowledge of the Orders, and may put his knowledge to practical use in the exercises which follow.
In laying out, from the descriptions and plates, the various problems which follow, some differences from the proportions already given may occasionally be found. These differences, in all cases attendant upon some ethical reason or principle of the problem involved, must be understood by the student before he attempts to apply the theoretical knowledge of the orders already acquired. Then, from the general dimensions given to determine the proportions of the problems, he will find it possible to complete the design by the application of the various details shown in the preceding plates. These exercises require the application of what the student has previously learned, to actual-if academic-problems, while they will also serve to illustrate such details as the proportions of arcades and openings, and the spacing of columns and of piers.
134. These exercises must be drawn out in pencil before ink-ing in any parts of the drawing. The plan is the prime essential and should be first determined and drawn out. In starting a drawing, either in plan or elevation, the general principles given in paragraphs 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 should be observed. The center line or axis must first be established in order to determine the relation and the placing of the drawing upon the paper.
135. The dimension figures given throughout these exercises may be omitted from the drawing; but all the lettering, both large and small, must be included. The plate must be signed and dated in the lower left or right-hand corner, and sent to the School for correction and criticism. The plates must be taken up and drawn out in the order given and the first plates submitted when three are completed in order that the student may profit by the instructor's corrections as he progresses with his work.
The Examination for this Instruction Paper consists of fifteen plates, which should be sent to the School in six instalments:
1st Instalment A, B, and C, 2nd " D and E,
3rd " F, G, and H,
4th Instalment I, J, and K, 5th " L and M,
6th " N and O.
Each Instalment should be sent as soon as completed.
The paper for these plates should be purchased in sheets 22 inches X 30 inches. (Imperial size). Some of the plates are to be 11 X 15 inches ( 1/4 of Imperial size) with border line 1/2 inch inside, making panel 10 inches X 14 inches. Others are to be 13 X 18 inside of border line, for which use 1/2 an Imperial sheet; while a few will require the whole sheet and should be 20 inches X 28 inches inside of border lines.
136. These exercises are shown in Fig. 4 and Plate II respectively. Fig. 4 should be drawn to the size shown in the margin, each unit representing one inch. Therefore the finished plates will be 10" X 14" in size. Plate B should be an accurate copy of Plate II. Leave out dimensions.
137. The sheet of mouldings shown in Fig. 5, is to be redrawn on a plate whose border line is 10" X l4". The names of the mouldings with the general title of the plate should be lettered in, following as closely as possible the model illustration.
PLATE XXVII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XXVLL)
PLATE XXVIII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XXVIII.)
138. Draw a plate to the border-line size of 10"x l4" and arrange after the manner shown in Plate VIII, assembling the various details of the Doric Order shown in Plates III, IV, V and VI, and following the measurements for the separate parts therein given. The placing of these details on the plate, with their relative size, lettering, etc., is to be as shown in the model, Plate VIII. Either the Mutular or the Denticular Order may be drawn out, as the student may prefer.
139. The Ionic Order is to be drawn and the finished plate is to correspond in appearance and arrangement with the model, Plate XIII, and is to follow the construction and proportions given in plates X, XI and XII.
140. The Corinthian Order is to be drawn so as to resemble the model, Plate XXI, and is to follow the measurements, proportions, etc., of Plates XVII, XVIII and XIX. Plates XV and XVI should assist materially in understanding the method of drawing the Corinthian capital shown in Plate XVII.
141. The arched doorway of the Denticular Doric Order, shown blocked out in rough outline in Fig. 25, is to be drawn to follow the general dimensions, and to include all the details given in the plates of that order. The border line should be 20 x 28 inches in size.
The width of the archway is two and one-half entablatures, and the columns, from center to center, are three entablatures and sixty parts apart. The heights, and the placing of the plan and elevation on the plate, will all be easily ascertained by following the inch units shown against the border line, Fig. 25.
142. The archway of the Ionic Order shown in Plate XXII is to be redrawn with the same outline size as in Plate G. The width of the Ionic arch is two and one-quarter entablatures, and its height is equal to twice its width, an accepted general rule for proportioning arches. The archway is ornamented with two columns placed before pilasters, which are in turn set against the face of the piers.
HIGH SCHOOL, FAIRHAVEN, MASS.
Brigham, Coveney & Bisbee, Architects, Boston, Mass.
Building, with Endowment, Given to His Native Town by H. H. Rogers, Vice-President of the Standard Oil Company. Structure is 191 Feet Long, 194 Feet Wide, and Cost Approximately $1,000,000. First Story, Rock-Faced Ashlar of Local Granite; Cut Work, Indiana Limestone; Upper Stories, Selected Darlington Brick, with Limestone Trimmings; Roof, Green Slate; Cupola, Copper. For Plan, See Following Page.