This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
There are two common methods of making joints in lead pipe, known as the "cup joint" and the "wipe joint." The first is suitable only on small pipes or very light pressures. This is made by flanging the end of one of the pipes and inserting the other, then filling in the flange with solder by means of a soldering iron, see Fig. 59. In making this joint great care should be taken that the ends of the pipes are round and fit closely so there will be no chance for the solder to run through inside the pipe and form obstructions for the collection of sediment.
The different stages of a wipe joint are shown in Fig. 60. The ends of the pipes are first cleaned and then fitted together as shown in the second stage. The solder is melted in a small cast iron crucible and is carefully poured on the joint or thrown on with a small stick called a "spatting stick." As the solder cools it becomes pasty and the joint can be worked into shape by means of the stick or a soft cloth, or both, depending upon the kind of joint and stage of operation. The final shape and smooth finish is given with the cloth. The ability to make a joint of this kind can be attained only by practice, and printed directions are of little value as compared with observation and actual practice. This is the strongest and most satisfactory joint that can be made between two lead pipes or a lead and brass or copper pipe. In the latter case the brass or copper should be carefully tinned as far as the joint is to extend by means of a soldering iron.
Where lead waste pipes are to be connected with cast iron soil pipes a brass ferule should be used. Different forms of these are shown in Fig.. 61 and 62. The lead pipe is wiped to the finished end of the ferule while the other end is calked into the hub of the cast iron pipe in the manner already described. The ferule should be made heavy so as not to be injured in the process of calking. Cup joints should never be used for this purpose.