This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The subject of plastering in relation to modern dwellings is necessarily divided into two sections. The first treats of the plastering of walls on the interior of the house; the second will briefly describe some of the various ways of finishing in cement plaster the house exterior.
The plastering cannot be started until the walls and ceilings have been lathed, and the ceilings must be furred before even the lathing can be begun. When the building is ready for lathing, all of the rough studding, framework, and partitions must be set in place; and the piping and wiring necessary in the plumbing, heating, lighting, etc., of the dwelling, must be installed and tested before the lathing or furring can be started.
The apparent break in the progress of building necessary to lath, plaster, and dry out a house, need not be altogether time lost for any of the various trades. Those unable to resume work until this intermediary process has been completed, can be securing their necessary materials and fixtures and arranging them ready for installation. The carpenter can be getting out his mill work and finish, be ready to put in his window-sash, set his standing finish in place around doors and windows, lay the upper floors, etc., and complete the remainder of his contract. The painter and paperer then commence their work; the electrician . plumbers, and heating contractors install their service fixtures, and the dwelling si soon ready for occupation.
The studs of a building are spaced sixteen inches apart on centers.
so that each lath received four nailings. Each end of the lath rests upon the center of a stud; and the two intermediate studs provide fastenings at spaces equally distant in its length. The ceilings are customarily furred to provide lath nailings, four - and in better work, five - nailings to the lath, with furrings seven-eighths of an inch thick and one and one-quarter inches or more wide, running crosswise of the floor joists. This furring is intended to level up the bottom of the joists, and distributes the unequal result of their shrinkage or uneven settlement from the weight above, thus preventing plaster cracks. Before beginning lathing, the carpenter should see that each partition, at its intersection with another wall, is started with a stud nailed directly against the crossing studding. This makes it impossible for the lather to run the ends of his laths in behind or over the partitions - a careless practice that provides a very unstable internal plaster angle. The carpenter also sets plaster furrings, three-quarters of an inch thick, around all window and door openings and around the walls at the height of the top of his base skirting, so as to mark the points where the work of both plasterer and lather end, and to provide nailings for the finish woodwork. It is essential for the carpenter to place any necessary furring for cornices, door-caps, etc., before the lathing is begun; also any other furring blocks that may be required by the plumber to secure the setting of his fixtures or to support and carry his pipes.