This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The radiator, so called, with which all furnaces of the better class are provided, acts as a sort of reservoir in which the gases are kept in contact with the air passing over the furnace until they have parted with a considerable portion of their heat. Radiators are built of cast iron, of steel plate or of a combination of the two. The former is more durable and can be made with fewer joints, but owing to the difficulty of casting radiators of large size, steel plate is commonly used for the sides.
The effectiveness of a radiator depends on its form, its heating surface and the difference between the temperature of the gases and the surrounding air. Owing to the accumulation of soot, the bottom surface becomes practically worthless after the furnace has been in use a short time; surfaces to be effective must therefore be self-cleaning.
If the radiator is placed near the bottom of the furnace the gases are surrounded by air at the lowest temperature, which renders the radiator more effective for a given size than if placed near the top and surrounded by warm air. On the other hand, the cold air has a tendency to condense the gases, and the acids thus formed are likely to corrode the iron.