This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 8 shows the usual method of connecting the service pipe with the street main. The service cock is connected directly with the main, and should be carefully blocked, so that any pressure of earth from above will not break the connection or strain the cock. To do this properly, the earth under the pipe should be rammed down solid after the connections are made, and the pipe at this point should be supported on sound wooden blocks. If galvanized iron is used for the service pipe, it should in all cases be connected to the main service cock with a short piece of lead pipe two or three feet long, for the reason that lead will give or sag with the pressure of the earth without breaking. The remainder of the pipe should be carefully embedded in the earth, to prevent uneven strains at any particular point. Connections between the lead and iron pipes should be made by means of brass ferrules and wiped joints. A stopcock should be placed in the service pipe just inside the cellar wall, and in a position where it will be accessible in case of accident. A drip should be connected with the stopcock for draining the pipes when water is shut off.
In protecting pipes against freezing it is well to pack them in hair, felt, granulated cork or dry shavings where they pass through the floor. This is shown in Fig. 8. When the service pipe comes in below the cellar floor, it may be arranged as shown in Fig. 9. The cock should be placed about 18 inches below the cellar bottom in a wooden box with hinged cover, so that it may be easily reached. In many cities and in certain elevated situations the pressure in the mains is not sufficient to carry the water to the house tanks in the attics of the higher buildings, and it becomes necessary to use some form of automatic pump for this purpose. The screw pump shown in Fig. 10 is especially adapted to uses of this kind when equipped with an electric motor and automatic starting and stopping devices. A float in the tank operates an electric switch by means of a chain and weights, as shown. A centrifugal or rotary pump is also satisfactory for this work.
Another device which may be attached to a steam pump is shown in Fig. 11. When the water line in the tank reaches a given height, the float closes a butterfly valve in the discharge pipe, thus increasing the pressure within it; this in pressure acts on the bottom of a piston by means of a connecting pipe, and in raising the piston, shuts off the steam supply to the pump. When the water line in the tank is lowered, the float falls and the butterfly valve opens, relieving the pressure in the pipe and allowing the steam valve to open by the action of the counterweights attached to the lever arm of the valve, as shown. The automatic valve is shown in section in Fig. 12. Another means of raising water to an elevation for domestic purposes, especially in the country, is by the use of a windmill. A large storage tank is placed at a suitable height so that a sufficient supply may be pumped on windy days to last over intervening periods of calm weather.