This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Again, it must be remembered that the triglyphs come directly over the columns beneath; and this fact, along with the use of the triglyphs on the exact corner or angle in Greek work-where support for the work overhead on both sides of the building is most essential-is explained only by this method of reasoning. Of course, it would be most natural for the rafters of the roof to be spaced directly over these supporting blocks; and again-as occurs in the frieze below, where one triglyph, at least, comes over the space between the columns-one rafter comes in the space between the triglyphs; and so we have the elements necessary to produce the characteristic treatment of the Greek Doric entablature.
One other point should be mentioned. The carving that frequently ornaments the face of the metope in many of the Greek temples indicates by its character another reason in support of this theory. This carving was most frequently in the nature of trophies or decorative groups composed of various arms and pieces of body armor; and it seems very probable that this style of ornament originated from the fact that in earlier buildings this open space between the triglyphs was often filled with votive offerings of arms taken from captives and placed around the temple in this fashion. So, when this space was closed in in later work, the decoration of its face by a presentment of the trophy itself would seem very natural to the builders.
As the temples increased in size, they became more difficult to light from these small openings beneath the cornice, and it became necessary to open a large space in the roof for this purpose. It must have been about this time that the metope space began to be encumbered with trophies of armor, and soon thereafter it was closed entirely by blocks of marble, until its ancient purpose was entirely given up and disregarded.
Stone Character of Greek Buildings with Doric Order. Whichever of these theories be the more nearly correct, there can be no question as to the merit of the Grecian architecture of the latter part of the 7th century B. C. The builders of that day broke completely with the traditions of timber construction with which they were familiar and whose slightness they might have been tempted to imitate, whereas they established with real force and complete reasonableness the essential principles of a new mode of building.
From this standpoint the monumental works of Doric architecture that arose at the end of the 7th century and at the beginning of the 6th in Corinth, Agrigentum, Syracuse, Segesta, and Paestum, are beyond criticism. By the 5th century, the proportions have been modified, and practiced hands and eyes have given to them greater elegance of detail and more refinement in the mass; but the new system of construction remains unchanged.
Thus was formed in the Greek Doric Order the first development of its kind, and one that proved to be the progenitor of the other succeeding Orders, as well as the very beginning of architecture as a fine art.
Afterwards, in parts of Macedonia and at Pompeii, the proportions of the Doric Order are accentuated in their height; it loses the robust aspect and strength of its character; and soon, in other aspects than the slimness of the column shaft, the decadence, which has commenced, becomes more manifest.
Type Form of Greek Doric Order. Plate XXXVIII displays a type form of the Greek Doric Order, the scale of parts being shown at the lower part of the plate, and the size of the column, in width, as parts at the base. The column is cut below the capital and above the base, so as to get both entablature and base on the page at a large size. At the right of the plate, a section through the entablature is shown by a darker section line, to indicate how the surfaces project beyond each other. This section is the outline that would be obtained if the cornice were cut through; or it may be considered as the pattern of the sides of the stones of which the Order is composed. Beside the capital of the column is the plan of the underside or soffit of the overhanging cornice, showing the ornamentation frequently used at the corner angle and the little circular guttae which are shown in their location on the main elevation of the Order. At the left of the cap is another drawing of the outline of the capital at a larger scale.
In the example of the Greek Doric Order shown in Plate XXX-VIII, the column has twenty channels or flutes, as shown in plan in Fig. 55, and rests upon a stylobate or platform generally consisting of three high steps. By referring to Fig. 88, an elevation of the Propylaea at Athens, through which entrance was obtained to the Acropolis above, the general appearance and use of this Order will be seen quite clearly. One invariable characteristic of this column, which in part indicates its more elementary form as well as its direct derivation from the rock-cut pier, is the absence of a base. The channels run directly down, and stop against or upon the platform or stylobate upon which the shaft rests; and at the top they are worked out again to the horizontal fillets or annulets of the capital. The number of these channels is always even. As has been said, the number of twenty was usually employed, although in one example-that of the Great Temple at Paestum-have been found columns of twenty-four flutes in the exterior order, and columns of twenty and even as few as six-teen flutes in the interior. But in the best examples in Athens, the number is invariably twenty, while their section is always semi-elliptical, or, in early work, the segment of a circle.
HOUSE AT FRAMINGHAM, MASS., AS REMODELED FOR.
C. LA VERNE BUTLER, ESQ.
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect, Boston, Mass.
Alterations on this Plaster House Completed in the Spring of 1906 at a Cost of $8.000. Taking into Consideration the Cnanges Made in the House and the Work Put in on Repairing and Raising the Roof, etc., an Entirely New House of this Size Could be Built for Nearly this Sum-Certainly within $9,000.
FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS OF HOUSE FOR C. LA VERNE BUTLER, ESQ., AT FRAMINGHAM, MASS.
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect, Boston, Mass.
Note the Two Different Sizes of the Doric Columns Used in this House. The Large Columns Extend Through Two Stories, and Form an Integral Structural Part of the House, Supporting a Portion of the Roof. The Small Columns of the Entrance Porch Serve as a Decorative Motif; and for Supporting the Protective Hood over the Entrance. For Exteriors. See Opposite Page.