This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The Roman Order is properly composed of three parts-the Column, the Entablature, and the Pedestal, as shown in Fig. 105. The pedestal is often omitted in modern work; and the term Order, as has already been stated, may be applied as well to the column and entablature when used together, as to the complete Order.
Each of the three main divisions of the Order is also divided into three parts. The central portion of the column is known as the shaft', the lower portion is called the base; and the upper portion, the capital or cap.
The entablature, which is that portion of the Order occurring over the column, is composed of the architrave or plate-band, which rests upon the column and which is it-elf divided into several bands or fascias; the frieze or plain portion, just above, sometimes decorated with sculpture; and the cornier or projecting part, formed of two main divisions-the bed-mould and the cymatium or cap, the latter the crowning member intended to throw off the rain-water and partially protect the sides of the building from the weather.
The pedestal is composed, like the other main divisions, of three parts-the central plain portion known as the die or dado; the lower projecting part, called the base; and the upper projecting part, called the cap or cymatium. Most of these main parts are again subdivided into many others called mouldings or members, which are further described in detail in each of the plates.
The Tuscan Order. There are five Roman Orders, one of which -known as the Tuscan (Fig. 6, Part I)-should be placed before the Doric, and is of much less importance than any of the others, although it was occasionally used in the lower or basement story of a building. This Order may possibly have been a combination of the Greek Doric with some characteristics taken from the Etruscan Orders, although, as it is now composed, it is probably most largely a creation of the Renaissance, founded upon some of the cruder remains and simpler experiments by the Romans in the use of the Doric Order.
This Tuscan Order may be largely disregarded in the present treatise, as its possibilities for use in modern work are very limited. It has seldom been used since Roman times, although a few good examples are found among the works of the Italian and the English Renaissance. It may be mentioned that its one invariable characteristic is in regard to the shaft of the column itself, which is always plain and never fluted. In fact, simplicity is the chief intention of the Tuscan Order. The mouldings are themselves so few, so simple, and so large in size that the effect is even almost inclined to be one of crudity rather than simplicity.
The Composite Order. The Romans also invented an Order termed the Composiie, drawn out more in detail in Plates LV and LVT, in which an interesting method of proportioning the various parts of this Order is shown. Just as the Tuscan column may be considered as merely a simplified form of the Doric, so the Composite Order is a more elaborate form of the Corinthian, and was used only for purposes of extreme display and ornamentation. The general proportions of this Order are almost exactly the same as those of the Corinthian; and its minor details, while similar, are even more elaborately ornamented. The capital is an evident combination of the principal Ionic and Corinthian features, and the entablature is most richly moulded and carved.
These various Orders each resulted from the caprice of the all-conquering Romans, whose desire was that Rome should make an apparent advance over the civilizations which she had absorbed.
Vignola. Inasmuch as it is from the Roman use of the Orders that we inherit-through the medium, principally, of Vignola-our present Classical forms, it will be interesting to consider for one moment the reliability of this authority, in order to determine how much dependence we should place upon his versions.
The generally accepted standards in Classical Roman work are the Orders as given by Vignola. His study of Classical architecture was made about the middle of the sixteenth century from careful measurements of then-existing Roman work; and since that time "The Orders of Architecture, according to Giacomo Barozzioda Vignola," in both Europe and America, has been accepted as the standard authority. The first edition of this book was published in Rome in 1563, and was followed by other similar publications arranged by such men as Palladio, Scamozzi, Alberti, Normand, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, and others. Each of these authorities, while founding his version of the Orders upon that of Vignola, has also made some modifications in type and detail, adapting the Orders, in part unconsciously, to the custom and habit of his time, as well as incorporating changes which his own experience and practice had suggested. It is therefore rather to be expected that the various type forms advocated by these masters and used by them in their own practice are in reality Renaissance Orders rather than Roman ones; but, inasmuch as they follow the Roman rather than the Greek type, the former title is still broadly applicable to them, while the true Roman work may better be termed, for purposes of distinction, Classic Roman architecture.
Unit of Measurement of the Orders. Referring to Fig. 106, "The Parallel of the Orders," it will be possible to take up the consideration of the main divisions of the three principal Roman Orders. The unit of measurement is again subdivided into two modules or semi-diameters. The module is further divided, in the accompanying illustrations and plates, sometimes into twelve parts, for the Tuscan and Doric Orders; into eighteen, for the Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite; and sometimes into thirty parts, as in the Greek work. The scales shown on the plates are interchangeable, and may be used with either system, five parts of the latter exactly equaling three parts of the Ionic and Corinthian eighteen divisions, or two parts of the twelve divisions of the Doric Order. The general proportion of the heights of the columns of these five Orders is:-in the Roman Tuscan Order, seven diameters; in the Doric Order, eight diameters; in the Ionic order, nine diameters; in the Corinthian and Composite Orders, ten diameters. The height of the entablature is always one-fourth the height of the column; thus, in the Tuscan Order, it is one and three-fourths diameters; in the Doric, two diameters; in the Ionic, two and one-fourth diameters; and in the Corinthian and Composite, two and one-half diameters. This general statement of the proportions of the five Orders should be sufficient, at least so far as regards the first and last of the series; but the three principal Orders require more specific consideration.
At the right of the Roman Orders (Fig. 100), are shown dimension lines marked for proportionate divisions in height, these divisions being determined according to the unit of measurement indicated; the letter D standing for diameter and M for the module, or one-half diameter. These three columns are all of the same size and dimension at the base, so the unit of measurement throughout is of the same length.
The Pedestal. The Roman Orders are all shown with a pedestal, which is never employed with any of the Greek columns. These pedestals, in the examples shown, give the effect of being rather slender for their height. This is caused, in part, by the base being so narrow, and the die or central plain portion, as it is here drawn out, too high. Many authorities place the crown moulding of the base much higher on the die than the one here followed, and utilize a plain plinth below the base-mould to take up the extra height.
General Proportions of the Orders. The- Roman Doric Order (Fig. 100), it is evident at the first glance, is radically different from its Greek prototype. This appears in the mouldings of the cap, in the base, in the proportions of the entablature, and its triglyph arrangement and treatment. This example, taken from Vignola, is supposed to have been somewhat closely adapted by him from the Doric Order used in the Theater of Marcellus at Rome; although he embodied some considerable changes from the original in this attempt at determining a satisfactory type form. The height of the column capital, including the necking, is one module or one-half diameter. The column base is the same height. The height of the entablature is two diameters; the architrave being one module, the frieze being one and one-half, and the cornice one and one-half modules in height and two modules in projection. The pedestal is two and four-sixths diameters high; with a base of five-sixths module, a cap of one-half module, and a die of four modules in height.
The Roman Ionic Order, with a column nine diameters or eighteen modules in height, has a pedestal three diameters high; of which five modules are reserved for the die, one-half module being for the cap and base respectively. In the column the base is one module in height; while the capital, from the necking up, is two-thirds of a module high, and from the bottom edge of the volute to the top of the abacus it is one module. The entablature is two and one-fourth diameters over all, which height is divided among the separate parts as follows:- the architrave has one and one-fourth modules; the frieze, one and three-fourths modules; and the cornice is two modules high and projects one module and thirteen parts.
The Corinthian column in Fig. 106 is ten diameters high. The pedestal is three and one-half diameters in height, with five modules and ten parts as the height of the die, two-thirds of a module for the base, and seven-ninths of a module for the cap. The base of the column is again one module in height. The capital is two and one-third modules high. As will be seen, the extra diameter in the height of the column is practically taken care of in the bell of the capital. The entablature is two and one-half diameters high, bearing the same relations to the column as in the two other Orders; and of this height, one and one-half modules are given to the architrave, one and one-half modules to the frieze, and two modules to the cornice, which in turn projects two modules and two parts.