This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.

79. Another method often necessary and convenient in casting the shadows of double-curved surfaces is the use of planes of light perpendicular to the co-ordinate planes.

These auxiliary planes of light are passed through the given object. They will cut out lines of intersection with the object and to these lines of intersection can be applied the projections of the rays of light which lie in the auxiliary planes of light. The points of contact or tangency, as the case may be, of the projections of the rays and the line of intersection are points in the required shadow.

80. The use of this method will be illustrated by finding the shadow of a sphere in the following problem. The shadow of the sphere serves to illustrate this method well, but a more accurate and convenient method is given later in Problem XXIX for determining the shade line of the sphere and its shadow.

FIG.33.

81. Problem XV. To find the shade line of a sphere.

In Fig. 33 is shown the plan and elevation of a sphere. Through the sphere in plan, pass the auxiliary plane of light P, perpendicular to H. This cuts out of the sphere the "line of intersection," shown in the elevation. This "line of intersection" is determined by using the auxiliary planes A, B, C, D, etc., each plane giving two points in the line. To this line of intersection made by the plane of light P, with the sphere, we apply the projections of the ray and obtain two points, xvyv, in the required shade line. Other points can be determined by using a number of these planes of light, as shown in Fig. 34, P, Q, R and S.

The points xv and yv can be projected to the plan to determine the shade line there. The ends of the major axis of the ellipses and av are determined by applying directly to the sphere the projections of the ray. The same is true of the plan.

82. *Problem XVI. To find the shadow of pediment mouldings.

Fig. 35 shows a series of pediment mouldings in elevation, the mouldings being supposed to extend to the left and right indefinitely, At the left is a "Eight Section," showing the profile of each moulding forming the pediment. The shadow of such an object can be most conveniently found by the use of a plane of light perpendicular to the V plane and intersecting the mouldings.

FIG34.

*Optional.

HOUSE IN WASHINGTON, D. C.

Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects, Washington, D. C.

For Plans, See Opposite Page; for Interiors, See Page 219. The Doric Column has been Used on the Porch.

F1RST FLOOR PLAN.

SECOND FLOOR PLAN.

PLANS OF HOUSE IN WASHINGTON, D. C.

Wonri. Donn & Deming, Architects, Washington, D. C.

If such a "Plane of Light" (45° line) as that shown in Fig. 35 is passed through the mouldings, it will be evident that this plane will cut the mouldings along a line of intersection which can be made use of in determining the shadow of each moulding upon the others. If we find the profile projection of this line of intersection using the right section, we can apply the profile projections of rays of light to the line of intersection. It will then be evident what faces the light strikes directly and to what edges the rays are tangent.

The line of intersection in Fig. 35 made by the Plane of Light is shown in vertical projection by the 45° line avbvcvdv, etc. The profile apbpcpdp, etc., is the profile projection of this line of intersection; the point bp is evidently on a horizontal line to the left of the point av at a distance from the line Vp (profile projection of V) equal to a'b obtained from the Right Section. In the same way the point cp is on a horizontal line to the left of cv and at a distance from the line Vp equal to the distance c'f also obtained from the Right Section. In a similar manner the- other points in the profile projection are found. The vertical line bpcp is the profile projection of the line of intersection which the Plane of Light makes with the fillet, this line in direct elevation is bvcv. If we now apply to this profile projection of the line of intersection the profile projections of the ray (45° lines) we see that the fillet bpcp is in the light, and that the ray is tangent to its lower edge cp. We also see that this tangent ray strikes the face D at the point lp; this means that the shadow of the edge c falls upon the face D. Since the mouldings of the pediment are all parallel to each other, the edge c is parallel to the face D, therefore, (30) the shadow of c on D will be parallel to C itself. This shadow is found in the elevation by drawing a horizontal line from the point Ip back to the Plane of Light. This operation gives the point lv and we draw through the point lv a line parallel to the edge C, as a part of the required shadow. Evidently that portion of the elevation between the edge C and its shadow will be in shadow.

In a like manner the edge dp is found to cast its shadow on the plane V, below the pediment mouldings proper, and its shadow is of course a line drawn through 2V parallel to the lines of the mouldings.

To return to the shadow of the edge C on the face D. It will be noticed that, if this is extended far enough, it will cross the pediment mouldings on the right-hand slope; as these are not parallel to the edge C, the shadow on them will not be a parallel line and we must use a separate, though similar, method for determining this portion of the shadow.

If auxiliary planes O, Q and R parallel to V are passed through the crowning moulding, they will cut out of it lines of intersection which will be parallel to the other lines of the pediment. (See the enlarged diagram at A showing the line of intersection of the auxiliary plane O.)

If we cast the shadow of the edge C on this plane O, by drawing the 45° line from cp to the line PO (the profile projection of O) and from the point 4p draw a horizontal line back to the Plane of Light, we shall obtain the line O (see "shadow on PO" in diagram A). This shadow will cross the Line of intersection of PO at the point 5V. The point 5V will be one point in the shadow of the edge C (indefinitely extended) on the right-hand slope of the pediment. Other points, 8v and 9V, can be found in a like manner by use of the auxiliary planes Q and P. Through a sufficient number of these points the curve 5V9V8V is drawn. This curve is the required shadow. The shadow of the end of the edge C is found by drawing a 45° line from the point mv (diagram A) to the curve. The point of intersection, 10v, is the shadow of the end of the edge C. It is also the beginning of the shadow of the edge B on the right-hand slope, which shadow is parallel to B.

The remaining shadows of the pediment are found in the same manner, and may be understood, from the diagram, without a detailed explanation.

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