In Fig. 165 is shown what is known as a single-pitch light, and is placed on a curb made by the carpenter which has the desired pitch.

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Fig. 166.

These skylights are chiefly used on steep roofs as shown in the illustration, and made to set on a wooden curbs pitching the same as the roof, the curb first being flashed. Ventilation is obtained by raising one or more lights by means of gearings as shown in Fig. 155.

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Fig. 167.

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Fig. 168.

Fig. 166 shows a double-pitch skylight. Ventilation is obtained by placing louvres at each end as shown at A. Fig. 167 shows a skylight with a ridge ventilator. The corner bar C is called the hip bar; the small bar D, mitering against the corner bar, is called the jack bar, while E is called the common bar. Fig. 168 illustrates a hip monitor skylight with glazed opening sashes for ventilation. These sashes can be opened or closed separately, by means of gearings similar to those shown in Fig. 177 In Fig. 169 is shown the method of raising sashes in conservatories, greenhouses, etc., the same apparatus being applicable to both metal and wooden sashes. Fig. 170 shows a view of a photographer's skylight; if desired, the vertical sashes can be made to open.

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Fig. 169.

In Fig. 171 is shown a flat extension skylight at the rear of a store or building. The upper side and ends are flashed into the brick work and made water-tight with waterproof cement, while the lower side rests on the rear wall to which it is fastened. In some cases the rear gutter is of cast iron, put up by the iron worker, but it is usually made of No. 22 galvanized iron, or 20-oz. cold-rolled copper. To receive the bottom of the gutter and skylight, the wall should be covered by a wooden plate A. Fig. 172, about two inches thick, and another plank set edgeways flush with the inside of the wall, as shown at B. The two planks are not required when a cast iron gutter is used.

Fig. 173 shows a hipped skylight without a ridge ventilator, set on a metal curb in which louvres have been placed. These louvres may be made stationary or movable. When made movable, they are constructed as shown in Fig. 174, in which A shows a perspective view.

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Fig. 170.

B shows them closed, and C open. They are operated by the quadrants attached to the upright bars a and b, which in turn are pulled up and down by cords or chains worked from below. When a skylight has a very long span, as in Fig. 175, it is constructed as shown in Fig.

176, in which A represents a T-beam which can be trussed if necessary.

This construction allows the water to escape from the bottom of the upper light to the outside of the top of the lower sunlight, the curb C of the upper light fitting over the curb B of the lower light.

In Fig. 177 is shown the method of applying the gearings A shows the side view of the metal or wooden sash partly opened, B the end of the main shaft, and C the binder that fastens the main shaft to the upright or rafter. D shows the quadrant wheel attached to main shaft and E is the worm wheel, geared to the quadrant D, communicating motion to the whole shaft. F is a hinged arm fastened to the main shaft B and hinged to the sash. By turning the hand-wheel the sash can be opened at any angle.

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Fig. 171.